27 research outputs found

    Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

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    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures, 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposiu

    Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.Comment: 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference with the 21st Symposium on Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors, 4 pages, 8 figure

    Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene for Applications in Gaseous Detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2x2cm2^2, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.Comment: 4pages, 3figures, 13th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detector

    Demonstration of Gd-GEM detector design for neutron macromolecular crystallography applications

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    The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's most powerful thermal neutron source. The Macromolecular Diffractometer (NMX) at the ESS requires three 51.2 x 51.2~cm2^{2} detectors with reasonable detection efficiency, sub-mm spatial resolution, a narrow point spread function (PSF) and good time resolution. This work presents measurements with the improved version of the NMX detector prototype consisting of a Triple-GEM detector with natural Gd converter and a low material budget readout. The detector was successfully tested at the neutron reactor of the Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC) and at the D16 instrument at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble. The measurements with Cadmium and Gadolinium masks in Budapest demonstrate that the point spread function of the detector lacks long tails that could impede the measurement of diffraction spot intensities. On the D16 instrument at ILL, diffraction spots from Triose phosphate isomerase w/ 2-phosphoglycolate (PGA) inhibitor were measured both in the D16 Helium-3 detector and the Gd-GEM. The comparison between the two detectors show a similar point spread function in both detectors, and the expected efficiency ratio compared to the Helium-3 detector. Both measurements together thus give good indications that the Gd-GEM detector fits the requirements for the NMX instrument at ESS

    Charge transfer properties through graphene for applications in gaseous detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2 x 2 cm(2), grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) - Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) - EP/H020055/1 / EP/N004159/

    Timing performance of a Micro-Channel-Plate Photomultiplier Tube

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    The spatial dependence of the timing performance of the R3809U-50 Micro-Channel-Plate PMT (MCP-PMT) by Hamamatsu was studied in high energy muon beams. Particle position information is provided by a GEM tracker telescope, while timing is measured relative to a second MCP-PMT, identical in construction. In the inner part of the circular active area (radius r5.5 mm) the time resolution of the two MCP-PMTs combined is better than 10 ps. The signal amplitude decreases in the outer region due to less light reaching the photocathode, resulting in a worse time resolution. The observed radial dependence is in quantitative agreement with a dedicated simulation. With this characterization, the suitability of MCP-PMTs as t0 reference detectors has been validated.Peer reviewe

    Progress on the PICOSEC-Micromegas Detector Development : Towards a precise timing, radiation hard, large-scale particle detector with segmented readout

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    This contribution describes the PICOSEC-Micromegas detector which achieves a time resolution below 25 ps. In this device the passage of a charged particle produces Cherenkov photons in a radiator, which then generate electrons in a photocathode and these photoelectrons enter a two-stage Micromegas with a reduced drift region and a typical anode region. The results from single-channel prototypes (demonstrating a time resolution of 24 ps for minimum ionizing particles, and 76 ps for single photoelectrons), the understanding of the detector in terms of detailed simulations and a phenomenological model, the issues of robustness and how they are tackled, and preliminary results from a multi-channel prototype are presented (demonstrating that a timing resolution similar to that of the single-channel device is feasible for all points across the area covered by a multi-channel device).Peer reviewe

    Precise charged particle timing with the PICOSEC detector

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    The experimental requirements in near future accelerators (e.g. High Luminosity-LHC) has stimulated intense interestin development of detectors with high precision timing capabilities. With this as a goal, a new detection concept called PICOSEC,which is based to a ‚Äútwo-stage‚ÄĚ MicroMegas detector coupled to a Cherenkov radiator equipped with a photocathode has beendeveloped. Results obtained with this new detector yield a time resolution of 24 ps for 150 GeV muons and 76 ps for single pho-toelectrons. In this paper we will report on the performance of the PICOSEC in test beams, as well as simulation studies andmodelling of its timing characteristicsPeer reviewe

    The planispherical chamber: A parallax-free gaseous X-ray detector for imaging applications

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    Crystallography or X-ray fluorescence experiments which require good signal to noise ratios and high position resolution can take advantage of the outstanding signal amplification capabilities of MicroPattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) such as Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs) coupled with the position resolution achieved by optical readout realized with CCD or CMOS cameras. Increasing the detection probability of incident radiation with thicker drift volumes in these detectors leads to a spatial resolution-limiting parallax error when employing parallel electric field lines in the drift region

    Radiation imaging with optically read out GEM-based detectors

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    Modern imaging sensors allow for high granularity optical readout of radiation detectors such as MicroPattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). Taking advantage of the high signal amplification factors achievable by MPGD technologies such as Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs), highly sensitive detectors can be realised and employing gas mixtures with strong scintillation yield in the visible wavelength regime, optical readout of such detectors can provide high-resolution event representations. Applications from X-ray imaging to fluoroscopy and tomography profit from the good spatial resolution of optical readout and the possibility to obtain images without the need for extensive reconstruction. Sensitivity to low-energy X-rays and energy resolution permit energy resolved imaging and material distinction in X-ray fluorescence measurements. Additionally, the low material budget of gaseous detectors and the possibility to couple scintillation light to imaging sensors via fibres or mirrors makes optically read out GEMs an ideal candidate for beam monitoring detectors in high energy physics as well as radiotherapy. We present applications and achievements of optically read out GEM-based detectors including high spatial resolution imaging and X-ray fluorescence measurements as an alternative readout approach for MPGDs. A detector concept for low intensity applications such as X-ray crystallography, which maximises detection efficiency with a thick conversion region but mitigates parallax-induced broadening is presented and beam monitoring capabilities of optical readout are explored. Augmenting high resolution 2D projections of particle tracks obtained with optical readout with timing information from fast photon detectors or transparent anodes for charge readout, 3D reconstruction of particle trajectories can be performed and permits the realisation of optically read out time projection chambers. Combining readily available high performance imaging sensors with compatible scintillating gases and the strong signal amplification factors achieved by MPGDs makes optical readout an attractive alternative to the common concept of electronic readout of radiation detectors. Outstanding signal-to-noise ratios and robustness against electronic noise allow unprecedented imaging capabilities for various applications in fields ranging from high energy physics to medical instrumentation
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