18 research outputs found

    Comparing public spheres: normative models and empirical measurements

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    Most contemporary work on public spheres tends to adopt, either explicitly or implicitly, HabermasÔÇÖs idea of a deliberative public sphere as a normative model. There are, however, a number of other normative models available that are rarely the subject of empirical scrutiny: republican, liberal and multicultural. This article poses the empirical question of whether actually existing public spheres more closely resemble one model rather than another. To answer this question, the authors develop ways to measure public spheres, at both national and transnational level. They ground this attempt to move comparative media analysis forward conceptually and empirically via a case study comparing media content about the EU Constitution in six countries

    Mapping European ideoscapes: examining newspaper debates on the EU Constitution in seven European countries

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    Despite embracing the rhetoric of transnational flows and networks, comparative research on media content continues to fall prey to methodological nationalism. When it comes to empirical measurement, researchers often, despite their best intentions, fall back on techniques that assume that the discourses circulating within particular nationally bounded communicative spaces are homogenous. In this article, we developed a set of propositions and analytical approaches that should help to overcome this impasse, and used them to examine the newspaper debates on the EU Constitutional Treaty in seven European states: the Czech Republic, Germany, France, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, and the UK. We suggested that instead of focusing solely on comparisons between nationally bounded communicative spheres, we should also look at differences between class-related communicative spaces. By adopting such an approach, we can acknowledge both sub-national segmentations of communicative spaces and transnational linkages, while at the same time not losing sight of the importance of the national. The results support our initial contention that the research on European mass communication ought to move beyond comparisons between national units and the levels of their respective Europeanization, and examine how European issues are conveyed in media catering to different social classes

    Media framings of the issue of Turkish accession to the EU: a European or national process?

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    Recent empirical research has argued that there is a movement towards a Europeanized public sphere in the European Union. Based on a representative sample from the British, French, Slovenian, Turkish, and US-American press, this article explores via a novel content analytic method that codes frames semi-automatically through keywords, in how far the discourses about the proposed accession of Turkey to the EU approximate a European public sphere. The findings show that discourses do not fulfill basic standards of democratic deliberation: Not only are there vast differences in the intensity of the debates, but the distribution of the main frames that structure the discourse - a "clash of civilizations" between "Islamic Turkey" and "Christian Europe" on the one hand versus a liberal-multiculturalist project that unifies different civilizations under one political roof on the other - are differently distributed across the countries surveyed. The actual manifestations frames vary by country. All frames employed also consider collectivities rather than individuals the major parties of the discourse, a conception that runs against the tenets of rational-democratic deliberations. ┬ę 2006 Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences and ICCR Foundation

    Recommended incremental transparency measures.

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    <p>*Starred items may be considered as radical transparency measures; at this time we deem it premature to recommend their open publication by default but would welcome small-scale experimentation in this area.</p><p>Recommended incremental transparency measures.</p

    Knowledge items.

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    <p>Knowledge items.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_A Student's Guide to Randomization Statistics for Multichannel Event-Related Potentials Using Ragu.ZIP

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    <p>In this paper, we present a multivariate approach to analyze multi-channel event-related potential (ERP) data using randomization statistics<sup>1</sup>. The MATLAB-based open source toolbox Randomization Graphical User interface (Ragu) provides, among other methods, a test for topographic consistency, a topographic analysis of variance, t-mapping and microstate analyses. Up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor, each with an open number of levels, can be defined and analyzed in Ragu. Ragu analyses include all sensor signals and no a-priori models have to be applied during the analyses. Additionally, periods of significant effects can be controlled for multiple testing using global overall statistics over time. Here, we introduce the different alternatives to apply Ragu, based on a step by step analysis of an example study. This example study examined the neural activity in response to semantic unexpected sentence endings in exchange students at the beginning of their stay and after staying in a foreign-language country for 5 months.</p

    RSNs and their topographic EEG signatures.

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    <p>The left row shows sagittal, coronal and horizontal slices of the ten RSNs (p<0.005; corrected at ╬▒<0.05 / x, y & z coordinates are provided at the left bottom corner of each RSN). On the right side the covariance and t-maps for the 8 frequency bands are displayed. A positive covariance value (red) indicates that with increasing RSN activity there is a relative increase in spectral power at a given electrode in a given frequency band, while a negative value (blue) indicates a decrease in power when the RSN activity increases, and vice versa. [Note: MR images are in neuroradiological convention (left is right), EEG maps are not (left is left).]</p

    The ten target RSNs, their name<sup>1</sup> and the involved brain areas (Center of Gravity/Anatomical and Brodmann area (BA)).

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    <p>For each RSN the mean spatial similarity (mSS) of the subjects' ICs and the Group Component (GC) are reported. The last column indicates the number of subjects that exhibited the respective RSN in an IC and thus contributed to the GC.</p><p>Footnote 1) with respect to the nomenclature of RSNs there exist different conventions. Some authors name the RSNs based on the comprised brain areas/lobes (e.g. fronto-parietal-temporal network for RSNs 4&5) others refer to the assumed cognitive functions (e.g. working memory or language network for RSNs 4&5).</p

    Topographical distribution of EEG working memory effects.

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    <p>For adults and children, load dependent and load independent theta EEG effects are shown in subfigures <b>A</b> and <b>B</b>, respectively. Group differences are shown in <b>C</b> and <b>D</b>. The short arrow indicates p<0.05 (t >1.69) and the long arrow indicates p<0.01 (t >2.44).</p

    Mean theta EEG GSP and GFS along with GSP/GFS-response accuracy interactions.

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    <p>Results for GSP (maintenance and baseline interval) are shown in the left panels of <b>A</b>, <b>B</b>, and <b>C</b>, whereas results for the GFS are shown in the right panels of <b>A</b>, <b>B</b>, and <b>C</b>. (** indicates p<0.001, * indicates p<0.05. n.s.: non-significant.</p
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