4 research outputs found

    Brain network clustering with information flow motifs

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    Recent work has revealed frequency-dependent global patterns of information flow by a network analysis of magnetoencephalography data of the human brain. However, it is unknown which properties on a small subgraph-scale of those functional brain networks are dominant at different frequencies bands. Motifs are the building blocks of networks on this level and have previously been identified as important features for healthy and abnormal brain function. In this study, we present a network construction that enables us to search and analyze motifs in different frequency bands. We give evidence that the bi-directional two-hop path is the most important motif for the information flow in functional brain networks. A clustering based on this motif exposes a spatially coherent yet frequency-dependent sub-division between the posterior, occipital and frontal brain regions.Network Architectures and Service

    Mapping functional brain networks from the structural connectome: Relating the series expansion and eigenmode approaches

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    Functional brain networks are shaped and constrained by the underlying structural network. However, functional networks are not merely a one-to-one reflection of the structural network. Several theories have been put forward to understand the relationship between structural and functional networks. However, it remains unclear how these theories can be unified. Two existing recent theories state that 1) functional networks can be explained by all possible walks in the structural network, which we will refer to as the series expansion approach, and 2) functional networks can be explained by a weighted combination of the eigenmodes of the structural network, the so-called eigenmode approach. To elucidate the unique or common explanatory power of these approaches to estimate functional networks from the structural network, we analysed the relationship between these two existing views. Using linear algebra, we first show that the eigenmode approach can be written in terms of the series expansion approach, i.e., walks on the structural network associated with different hop counts correspond to different weightings of the eigenvectors of this network. Second, we provide explicit expressions for the coefficients for both the eigenmode and series expansion approach. These theoretical results were verified by empirical data from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), demonstrating a strong correlation between the mappings based on both approaches. Third, we analytically and empirically demonstrate that the fit of the eigenmode approach to measured functional data is always at least as good as the fit of the series expansion approach, and that errors in the structural data lead to large errors of the estimated coefficients for the series expansion approach. Therefore, we argue that the eigenmode approach should be preferred over the series expansion approach. Results hold for eigenmodes of the weighted adjacency matrices as well as eigenmodes of the graph Laplacian. ‚ÄčTaken together, these results provide an important step towards unification of existing theories regarding the structure-function relationships in brain networks.Network Architectures and Service

    Predicting time-resolved electrophysiological brain networks from structural eigenmodes

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    How temporal modulations in functional interactions are shaped by the underlying anatomical connections remains an open question. Here, we analyse the role of structural eigenmodes, in the formation and dissolution of temporally evolving functional brain networks using resting-state magnetoencephalography and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data at the individual subject level. Our results show that even at short timescales, phase and amplitude connectivity can partly be expressed by structural eigenmodes, but hardly by direct structural connections. Albeit a stronger relationship was found between structural eigenmodes and time-resolved amplitude connectivity. Time-resolved connectivity for both phase and amplitude was mostly characterised by a stationary process, superimposed with very brief periods that showed deviations from this stationary process. For these brief periods, dynamic network states were extracted that showed different expressions of eigenmodes. Furthermore, the eigenmode expression was related to overall cognitive performance and co-occurred with fluctuations in community structure of functional networks. These results implicate that ongoing time-resolved resting-state networks, even at short timescales, can to some extent be understood in terms of activation and deactivation of structural eigenmodes and that these eigenmodes play a role in the dynamic integration and segregation of information across the cortex, subserving cognitive functions.Network Architectures and Service

    Interlayer connectivity reconstruction for multilayer brain networks using phase oscillator models

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    Large-scale neurophysiological networks are often reconstructed from band-pass filtered time series derived from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. Common practice is to reconstruct these networks separately for different frequency bands and to treat them independently. Recent evidence suggests that this separation may be inadequate, as there can be significant coupling between frequency bands (interlayer connectivity). A multilayer network approach offers a solution to analyze frequency-specific networks in one framework. We propose to use a recently developed network reconstruction method in conjunction with phase oscillator models to estimate interlayer connectivity that optimally fits the empirical data. This approach determines interlayer connectivity based on observed frequency-specific time series of the phase and a connectome derived from diffusion weighted imaging. The performance of this interlayer reconstruction method was evaluated in-silico. Our reconstruction of the underlying interlayer connectivity agreed to very high degree with the ground truth. Subsequently, we applied our method to empirical resting-state MEG data obtained from healthy subjects and reconstructed two-layered networks consisting of either alpha-to-beta or theta-to-gamma band connectivity. Our analysis revealed that interlayer connectivity is dominated by a multiplex structure, i.e. by one-to-one interactions for both alpha-to-beta band and theta-to-gamma band networks. For theta-gamma band networks, we also found a plenitude of interlayer connections between distant nodes, though weaker connectivity relative to the one-to-one connections. Our work is an stepping stone towards the identification of interdependencies across frequency-specific networks. Our results lay the ground for the use of the promising multilayer framework in this field with more-informed and justified interlayer connections. Network Architectures and Service