1,351 research outputs found

    REVENUE RISK AND FISHERY CHOICE WITH LINEAR-EXPONENTIAL UTILITY: AN APPLICATION TO BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS TRAWL FISHERIES

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    A discrete choice model of 1991-96 trawl groundfish fishery participation in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region is developed and estimated. The model fits well, with strong risk and seasonal effects. Notably, the model uses routinely-collected data, suggesting this type of analysis can be a regular part of the management process.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    TOWARD EFFICIENT BYCATCH MANAGEMENT IN MULTISPECIES FISHERIES: A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH

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    Linear programming-based models of individual multispecies groundfish operations in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands area are developed and applied to the question of determining efficient bycatches. The policy tool is halibut quotas, which restrict the bycatch of halibut and also induce changes in the target species catch composition and bycatch of other prohibited species. Efficient quotas can be interpolated from the locus of shadow values for discrete halibut quotas relative to the opportunity cost of prohibited species bycatch induced by the policy-set quotas on halibut bycatch. Because of information limitations intrinsic to fisheries management, the efficient halibut quotas are considered in the context of ranges of marginal value and marginal opportunity cost developed using short- and long-run groundfish fishery models and standard error estimates of opportunity cost.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit by Resonant Dopant in Half-Heusler Alloys

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    Half-Heusler alloys have been one of the benchmark high temperature thermoelectric materials owing to their thermal stability and promising figure of merit ZT. Simonson et al. early showed that small amounts of vanadium doped in Hf0.75Zr0.25NiSn enhanced the Seebeck coefficient and correlated the change with the increased density of states near the Fermi level. We herein report a systematic study on the role of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) as prospective resonant dopants in enhancing the ZT of n-type half-Heusler alloys based on Hf0.6Zr0.4NiSn0.995Sb0.005. The V doping was found to increase the Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-1000 K, consistent with a resonant doping scheme. In contrast, Nb and Ta act as normal n-type dopants, as evident by the systematic decrease in electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient. The combination of enhanced Seebeck coefficient due to the presence of V resonant states and the reduced thermal conductivity has led to a state-of-the-art ZT of 1.3 near 850 K in n-type (Hf0.6Zr0.4)0.99V0.01NiSn0.995Sb0.005 alloys.Comment: Submitted to AIP Advance

    Nature Versus Nurture: Luminous Blue Variable Nebulae in and near Massive Stellar Clusters at the Galactic Center

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    Three Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster at the Galactic Center: the Pistol star, G0.120-0.048, and qF362. We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 {\mu}m of the region containing these three LBVs, obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. We argue that the Pistol and G0.120-0.048 are identical ``twins" that exhibit contrasting nebulae due to the external influence of their different environments. Our images reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. Dust and gas composing the Pistol nebula are primarily heated and ionized by the nearby Quintuplet Cluster stars. The northern region of the Pistol nebula is decelerated due to the interaction with the high-velocity (2000 km/s) winds from adjacent Wolf-Rayet Carbon (WC) stars. With the DustEM code we determine that the Pistol nebula is composed of a distribution of very small, transiently-heated grains (10-~35 {\AA}) and that it exhibits a gradient of decreasing grain size from the south to the north due to differential sputtering by the winds from the WC stars. Dust in the G0.120-0.048 nebula is primarily heated by the central star; however, the nebular gas is ionized externally by the Arches Cluster. Unlike the Pistol nebula, the G0.120-0.048 nebula is freely expanding into the surrounding medium. Given independent dust and gas mass estimates we find that the Pistol and G0.120-0.048 nebulae exhibit similar gas-to-dust mass ratios of ~310 and ~290, respectively. Both nebulae share identical size scales (~ 0.7 pc) which suggests that they have similar dynamical timescales of ~10^5 yrs, assuming a shell expansion velocity of v_exp 60 km/s.Comment: 18 pages, 7 figures, accepted to Ap

    Recent Advances in Nanostructured Thermoelectric Half-Heusler Compounds

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    Half-Heusler (HH) alloys have attracted considerable interest as promising thermoelectric (TE) materials in the temperature range around 700 K and above, which is close to the temperature range of most industrial waste heat sources. The past few years have seen nanostructuing play an important role in significantly enhancing the TE performance of several HH alloys. In this article, we briefly review the recent progress and advances in these HH nanocomposites. We begin by presenting the structure of HH alloys and the different strategies that have been utilized for improving the TE properties of HH alloys. Next, we review the details of HH nanocomposites as obtained by different techniques. Finally, the review closes by highlighting several promising strategies for further research directions in these very promising TE materials.Comment: 34 pages, 22 figure

    Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

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    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 MM_\odot of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium (nen_e ~ 100 cm3\mathrm{cm}^{-3}) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.Comment: 25 pages, 5 figures. Includes supplementary materials. Published Online March 19 2015 on Science Expres

    MULTISPECIES REVENUE FUNCTION ESTIMATION FOR NORTH PACIFIC GROUNDFISH FISHERIES

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    Multiproduct, multispecies revenue functions are estimated for the midwater and bottom-trawl pollock fisheries off Alaska. There are strong year and seasonal effects on coefficient estimates, and the technology is joint in outputs for each major operation type. The model is a step toward prediction of fishery regulatory effects.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
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