2,618 research outputs found

    Large Momenta Fluctuations Of Charm Quarks In The Quark-Gluon Plasma

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    We show that large fluctuations of D mesons kinetic energy (or momentum) distributions might be a signature of a phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP). In particular, a jump in the variance of the momenta or kinetic energy, as a function of a control parameter (temperature or Fermi energy at finite baryon densities) might be a signature for a first order phase transition to the QGP. This behaviour is completely consistent with the order parameter defined for a system of interacting quarks at zero temperature and finite baryon densities which shows a jump in correspondance to a first order phase transition to the QGP. The J/ΨJ/\Psi shows exactly the same behavior of the order parameter and of the variance of the D mesons. We discuss implications for relativistic heavy ion collisions within the framework of a transport model and possible hints for experimental data.Comment: 4 pages 3 figure

    CP violation and mass hierarchy at medium baselines in the large theta(13) era

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    The large value of theta(13) recently measured by rector and accelerator experiments opens unprecedented opportunities for precision oscillation physics. In this paper, we reconsider the physics reach of medium baseline superbeams. For theta(13) ~ 9 degree we show that facilities at medium baselines -- i.e. L ~ O(1000 km) -- remain optimal for the study of CP violation in the leptonic sector, although their ultimate precision strongly depends on experimental systematics. This is demonstrated in particular for facilities of practical interest in Europe: a CERN to Gran Sasso and CERN to Phyasalmi nu_mu beam based on the present SPS and on new high power 50 GeV proton driver. Due to the large value of theta(13), spectral information can be employed at medium baselines to resolve the sign ambiguity and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. However, longer baselines, where matter effects dominate the nu_mu->nu_e transition, can achieve much stronger sensitivity to sign(Delta m^2) even at moderate exposures.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figures, version to appear in EPJ

    Neutrino oscillation studies with laser-driven beam dump facilities

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    A new mechanism is suggested for efficient proton acceleration in the GeV energy range; applications to non-conventional high intensity proton drivers and, hence, to low-energy (10-200 MeV) neutrino sources are discussed. In particular we investigate possible uses to explore subdominant νˉμ→νˉe\bar{\nu}_\mu \to \bar{\nu}_e oscillations at the atmospheric scale and their CP conjugate. We emphasize the opportunity to develop these facilities in conjunction with projects for inertial confined nuclear fusion and neutron spallation sources.Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures, minor changes, version to appear in Nucl.Instrum.Meth.

    Nanotechnologies for cultural heritage: nanodiamond for conservation of papers and parchments

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    In this paper we report some tests regarding the feasibility of nanodiamond to act as a cleaning/consolidation agent of papers and parchments. We carried out a series of treatments aiming to develop innovative approaches for de-acidification, cleaning and consolidation. Dispersions of nanodiamond have been used as de-acidification agents of ancient papers showing the ability to sensibly reduce the acidity of the paper without using any alkaline base. Similar dispersions have been used for cleaning processes and nanodiamond demonstrated an outstanding capability to clean ancient papers and parchments avoiding the use of any solvent and surfactant. Moreover interesting results were obtained by using nanodiamond as consolidation agent. In particular, artificial aging by UV exposition was appreciably contrasted when samples were preliminarily submitted to a treatment by nanodiamond. This outcome was demonstrated in papers and parchments by Raman spectroscopy analyses that evidenced the property of nanodiamond to be an excellent UV-scavenge

    In-Vitro steroidogenesis of newly formed corpora lutea and the non-luteal ovary in the rat, rabbit, hamster and guinea-pig

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    The steroidogenic abilities of the newly formed corpus luteum (8-10 h after ovulation) and the non-luteal ovary were compared in the guinea-pig, hamster, rabbit and rat using an invitro incubation technique. Histologically, newly formed rat corpora lutea (CL) were highly luteinized whereas the CL of the rabbit and guinea-pig were only partially luteinized. The CL of the hamster showed the least amount of luteinization. Serum progesterone was highest in the rat (18 ± 3 (s.e.m.) ng/ml). In the hamster, it was about 8 ng/ml, whereas in the rabbit and guinea-pig it was about 1 ng/ml. Serum androstenedione ranged between 0.5 and 1 ng/ml. Serum testosterone was lowest in the hamster (60 pg/ml) and highest in the rabbit (470 pg/ml), whereas in the rat and guinea-pig, testosterone levels were similar (about 240 pg/ml). Serum oestrogens were at baseline levels in all species. The CL of the rat exhibited considerably greater steroidogenic ability than the CL of the other species, producing 70 ± 6 ng progesterone/mg per h, 215 ± 14 pg androstenedione/mg per h, 49 ± 3 pg testosterone/mg per h, 3 pg oestrone/mg per h and 1 pg oestradiol/mg per h. Rabbit CL produced only progesterone (7 ± 2 ng/mg per h). Newly formed hamster CL produced none of the above steroids. In general, the ability of the CL to produce progesterone in vitro correlated with the degree of luteinization found by histological observation. Guinea-pig CL were embedded deeply in the ovary and could not be obtained without damage. Consequently, a portion of the ovary containing a corpus luteum was incubated. There was no difference in the steroid production by this portion of the ovary compared with the non-luteal ovary. The non-luteal ovary of the rat produced the highest amount of progesterone (10 ± 2 ng/mg per h). The guinea-pig non-luteal ovary produced about 5 ± 2 ng progesterone/mg per h, whereas the non-luteal ovary of the rabbit did not produce any. On the other hand, the hamster non-luteal ovary lost progesterone. Non-luteal ovaries from all species produced androgens. The non-luteal ovary of the guinea-pig contained especially large numbers of atretic antral follicles. The guinea-pig non-luteal ovary produced extremely large amounts of androstenedione (1110 ± 210 pg/mg per h) and testosterone (606 ± 154 pg/mg per h) compared with the amounts produced by the non-luteal ovary of the rat, hamster and rabbit. In the non-luteal ovary, interstitium and atretic antral follicles are the probable source of androgens. Oestrogen production by the non-luteal ovary was at baseline levels in the four species studied correlating with the absence of healthy antral follicles. The results indicate the extreme species differences that exist in ovarian function in the early postovulatory period

    PS-inSAR data analysis: Pre-seismic ground deformation in the 2009 l’aquila earthquake region

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    The accuracy of the millimetre-scale measurements made so far by the SAR systems, as well as the multi-temporal analysis methodologies, have provided impressive images of surface displacements in areas affected by strong earthquakes, and contributed to constrain the geometric and kinematic features of earthquake generating faults. The multi-temporal analysis of InSAR data is also being acknowledged as promising for the search of earthquake precursors. We have applied the multi-temporal PS-InSAR technique to the detection of pre- to post-seismic ground displacements in the region struck by the normal faulting 2009 L’Aquila earthquake. We have used ERS and ENVISAT PS-data sets from both ascending and descending orbits, covering a 20-year long time span. On the yearly-scale, we have identified a pre-seismic displacement pattern, which consists of opposite vertical motions that have affected the blocks in the hanging wall and footwall of the structure that is recognised as the surface trace of the earthquake-generating fault. In particular, we have highlighted a pre-seismic uplift for 4-5 years followed by subsidence (starting 6-8 months prior to the earthquake) of the hanging wall block, coeval to opposite vertical motions of the footwall block. We suggest that such a displacement pattern may represent an earthquake precursor signal
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