740 research outputs found

    Some stackelberg type location game

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    AbstractThis paper considers a Stackelberg type location game over the unit square [0,1] × [0,1]. There are two chain stores, Players I and II, which sell the same kind of articles. Each store is planning to open a branch in region [0,1]. The purpose of each store is to decide the location to open its branch. In such a situation, the demand points, i.e., the customers, distribute continuously over [0,1] in accordance with cdf G(·). Each customer wants to buy at a closer store between them, but never moves more than a distance ℓ. We also assume that Player I is forced to behave as the leader of this game and the opponent (Player II) is to be the follower. It is shown that there are various types of Stackelberg equilibriums according to the conditions of G(·) and ℓ

    Tuning the electrically evaluated electron Lande g factor in GaAs quantum dots and quantum wells of different well widths

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    We evaluate the Lande g factor of electrons in quantum dots (QDs) fabricated from GaAs quantum well (QW) structures of different well width. We first determine the Lande electron g factor of the QWs through resistive detection of electron spin resonance and compare it to the enhanced electron g factor determined from analysis of the magneto-transport. Next, we form laterally defined quantum dots using these quantum wells and extract the electron g factor from analysis of the cotunneling and Kondo effect within the quantum dots. We conclude that the Lande electron g factor of the quantum dot is primarily governed by the electron g factor of the quantum well suggesting that well width is an ideal design parameter for g-factor engineering QDs

    Light scattering and phase behavior of Lysozyme-PEG mixtures

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    Measurements of liquid-liquid phase transition temperatures (cloud points) of mixtures of a protein (lysozyme) and a polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) show that the addition of low molecular weight PEG stabilizes the mixture whereas high molecular weight PEG was destabilizing. We demonstrate that this behavior is inconsistent with an entropic depletion interaction between lysozyme and PEG and suggest that an energetic attraction between lysozyme and PEG is responsible. In order to independently characterize the lysozyme/PEG interactions, light scattering experiments on the same mixtures were performed to measure second and third virial coefficients. These measurements indicate that PEG induces repulsion between lysozyme molecules, contrary to the depletion prediction. Furthermore, it is shown that third virial terms must be included in the mixture's free energy in order to qualitatively capture our cloud point and light scattering data. The light scattering results were consistent with the cloud point measurements and indicate that attractions do exist between lysozyme and PEG.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl

    Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia

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    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important problems in Zambia and causes serious effects to humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of heavy metals in main areas of Zambia and understand the characteristics of the pollution in each area. River and lake sediments and soil samples were collected from a large area of Zambia and analyzed for ten heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Sr and Hg). The results indicate that heavy metal pollution in Zambia has strong regional differences. Using cluster analysis, the patterns of heavy metal pollution were divided into three major clusters: (1) Kabwe, (2) Copperbelt and (3) Lusaka and other areas. Heavy metals in the Copperbelt area are transported to downstream areas by the Kafue River. Pollution was also detected in national parks, and Lake Itezhi-tezhi has been polluted with high concentrations of Cu, possibly from mining activities in the upper reaches of the river. However, areas geographically distant from mining beds had only moderate or low heavy metal concentrations, although the concentrations of Pb and Zn were highly correlated with the populations of each town. Our findings indicate that heavy metal pollution in Zambia is still increasing, due to human activities, especially mining.Key words: Heavy metal, contamination, mining, soil, sediment

    Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphe neurones and cranial motoneurones

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    In this study, we elucidate the roles of the winged-helix transcription factor Foxa2 in ventral CNS development in zebrafish. Through cloning of monorail (mol), which we find encodes the transcription factor Foxa2, and phenotypic analysis of mol(-/-) embryos, we show that floorplate is induced in the absence of Foxa2 function but fails to further differentiate. In mol(-/-) mutants, expression of Foxa and Hh family genes is not maintained in floorplate cells and lateral expansion of the floorplate fails to occur. Our results suggest that this is due to defects both in the regulation of Hh activity in medial floorplate cells as well as cell-autonomous requirements for Foxa2 in the prospective laterally positioned floorplate cells themselves. Foxa2 is also required for induction and/or patterning of several distinct cell types in the ventral CNS. Serotonergic neurones of the raphe nucleus and the trochlear motor nucleus are absent in mol(-/-) embryos, and oculomotor and facial motoneurones ectopically occupy ventral CNS midline positions in the midbrain and hindbrain. There is also a severe reduction of prospective oligodendrocytes in the midbrain and hindbrain. Finally, in the absence of Foxa2, at least two likely Hh pathway target genes are ectopically expressed in more dorsal regions of the midbrain and hindbrain ventricular neuroepithelium, raising the possibility that Foxa2 activity may normally be required to limit the range of action of secreted Hh proteins
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