37 research outputs found

    In Vitro Metabolic and Mitogenic Signaling of Insulin Glargine and Its Metabolites

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    with regard to their insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) binding and signaling properties as well as their metabolic and mitogenic activities.The affinity of human insulin, insulin glargine and its metabolites to the IR isoforms A and B or IGF1R was analyzed in a competitive binding assay using SPA technology. Receptor autophosphorylation activities were studied via In-Cell Western in CHO and MEF cells overexpressing human IR-A and IR-B or IGF1R, respectively. The metabolic response of the insulins was studied as stimulation of lipid synthesis using primary rat adipocytes. Thymidine incorporation in Saos-2 cells was used to characterize the mitogenic activity. value for autophosphorylation of the receptor and a more potent stimulation of thymidine incorporation in Saos-2 cells. In contrast, the metabolites M1 and M2 were significantly less active in binding to and activation of the IGF1R and their mitogenicity in Saos-2 cells was equal to human insulin. These findings strongly support the idea that insulin glargine metabolites contribute with the same potency as insulin glargine to blood glucose control but lead to significantly reduced growth-promoting activity

    Reminiscences of Some Models of Japanese Style Vessels

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    We investigated 1) the ability of purified glargine (GLA), metabolites 1 (M1) and 2 (M2), IGF-I, and NPH insulin to activate the insulin receptor (IR)-A and IR-B and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro; 2) plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 during longterm insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients; and 3) IR-A and IR-B activation in vitro induced by serum from patients treated with GLA or NPH insulin. A total of 104 patients (age 56.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI 31.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2, and A1C 9.1 ± 0.1% [mean ± SE]) were randomized to GLA or NPH insulin therapy for 36 weeks. Plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 were determined by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry assay. IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation was induced by purified hormones or serum by kinase receptor activation assays. In vitro, M1 induced comparable IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation (activation) as NPH insulin. After 36 weeks, M1 increased from undetectable

    Facile folding of insulin variants bearing a prosthetic C-peptide prepared by -ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation

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    The chemical synthesis of insulin is an enduring challenge due to the hydrophobic peptide chains and construction of the correct intermolecular disulfide pattern. We report a new approach to the chemical synthesis of insulin using a short, traceless, prosthetic C-peptide that facilitates the formation of the correct disulfide pattern during folding and its removal by basic treatment. The linear precursor is assembled by an ester forming α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation that provides access to the linear insulin precursors in good yield from two readily prepared segments. This convergent and flexible route provides access to various human, mouse, and guinea pig insulins containing a single homoserine mutation that shows no detrimental effect on the biological activities.ISSN:2041-6520ISSN:2041-653