21 research outputs found

    Early non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in hemodynamically unstable intensive care patients: A multi-center randomized controlled trial

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    Introduction Acute hemodynamic instability increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether early non-invasive cardiac output monitoring enhances hemodynamic stabilization and improves outcome. Methods A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in three European university hospital intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. A total of 388 hemodynamically unstable patients identified during their first six hours in the intensive care unit (ICU) were randomized to receive either non-invasive cardiac output monitoring for 24 hrs (minimally invasive cardiac output/MICO group; n = 201) or usual care (control group; n = 187). The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients achieving hemodynamic stability within six hours of starting the study. Results The number of hemodynamic instability criteria at baseline (MICO group mean 2.0 (SD 1.0), control group 1.8 (1.0); P = .06) and severity of illness (SAPS II score; MICO group 48 (18), control group 48 (15); P = .86)) were similar. At 6 hrs, 45 patients (22%) in the MICO group and 52 patients (28%) in the control group were hemodynamically stable (mean difference 5%; 95% confidence interval of the difference -3 to 14%; P = .24). Hemodynamic support with fluids and vasoactive drugs, and pulmonary artery catheter use (MICO group: 19%, control group: 26%; P = .11) were similar in the two groups. The median length of ICU stay was 2.0 (interquartile range 1.2 to 4.6) days in the MICO group and 2.5 (1.1 to 5.0) days in the control group (P = .38). The hospital mortality was 26% in the MICO group and 21% in the control group (P = .34). Conclusions Minimally-invasive cardiac output monitoring added to usual care does not facilitate early hemodynamic stabilization in the ICU, nor does it alter the hemodynamic support or outcome. Our results emphasize the need to evaluate technologies used to measure stroke volume and cardiac output--especially their impact on the process of care--before any large-scale outcome studies are attempted

    Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G<sub>0</sub>), the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS) has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline). Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST) and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-ÎșB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.</p

    Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field.Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) [corrected] is widely used for fluid resuscitation in intensive care units (ICUs), but its safety and efficacy have not been established in patients with severe sepsis. In this multicenter, parallel-group, blinded trial, we randomly assigned patients with severe sepsis to fluid resuscitation in the ICU with either 6% HES 130/0.42 (Tetraspan) or Ringer's acetate at a dose of up to 33 ml per kilogram of ideal body weight per day. The primary outcome measure was either death or end-stage kidney failure (dependence on dialysis) at 90 days after randomization. Of the 804 patients who underwent randomization, 798 were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 90 days after randomization, 201 of 398 patients (51%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 had died, as compared with 172 of 400 patients (43%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.36; P=0.03); 1 patient in each group had end-stage kidney failure. In the 90-day period, 87 patients (22%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 were treated with renal-replacement therapy versus 65 patients (16%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.80; P=0.04), and 38 patients (10%) and 25 patients (6%), respectively, had severe bleeding (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.94 to 2.48; P=0.09). The results were supported by multivariate analyses, with adjustment for known risk factors for death or acute kidney injury at baseline. Patients with severe sepsis assigned to fluid resuscitation with HES 130/0.42 had an increased risk of death at day 90 and were more likely to require renal-replacement therapy, as compared with those receiving Ringer's acetate. (Funded by the Danish Research Council and others; 6S ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00962156.)Danish Research Council 271-08-0691 09-066938 Rigshospitalet Research Council Scandinavian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine ACTA Foundation Fresenius Kab

    Common Inflammation-Related Candidate Gene Variants and Acute Kidney Injury in 2647 Critically Ill Finnish Patients

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    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome with high incidence among the critically ill. Because the clinical variables and currently used biomarkers have failed to predict the individual susceptibility to AKI, candidate gene variants for the trait have been studied. Studies about genetic predisposition to AKI have been mainly underpowered and of moderate quality. We report the association study of 27 genetic variants in a cohort of Finnish critically ill patients, focusing on the replication of associations detected with variants in genes related to inflammation, cell survival, or circulation. In this prospective, observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study, 2647 patients without chronic kidney disease were genotyped. We defined AKI according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We compared severe AKI (Stages 2 and 3, n = 625) to controls (Stage 0, n = 1582). For genotyping we used iPLEX(TM) Assay (Agena Bioscience). We performed the association analyses with PLINK software, using an additive genetic model in logistic regression. Despite the numerous, although contradictory, studies about association between polymorphisms rs1800629 in TNFA and rs1800896 in IL10 and AKI, we found no association (odds ratios 1.06 (95% CI 0.89-1.28, p = 0.51) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.80-1.05, p = 0.20), respectively). Adjusting for confounders did not change the results. To conclude, we could not confirm the associations reported in previous studies in a cohort of critically ill patients.Peer reviewe

    Increasing abdominal pressure with and without PEEP: effects on intra-peritoneal, intra-organ and intra-vascular pressures

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    Abstract Background Intra-organ and intra-vascular pressures can be used to estimate intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this prospective, interventional study was to assess the effect of PEEP on the accuracy of pressure estimation at different measurement sites in a model of increased abdominal pressure. Methods Catheters for pressure measurement were inserted into the stomach, urinary bladder, peritoneal cavity, pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava of 12 pigs. The pressures were recorded simultaneously at baseline, during 10 cm H20 PEEP, external abdominal pressure (7 kg weight) plus PEEP, external abdominal pressure without PEEP, and again under baseline conditions. Results (mean ± SD) PEEP alone increased diastolic pulmonary artery and inferior vena cava pressure but had no effect on the other pressures. PEEP and external abdominal pressure increased intraperitoneal pressure from 6 ± 1 mm Hg to 9 ± 2 mm Hg, urinary bladder pressure from 6 ± 2 mm Hg to 11 ± 2 mm Hg (p = 0.012), intragastric pressure from 6 ± 2 mm Hg to 11 ± 2 mm Hg (all p ≀ 0.001), and inferior vena cava pressure from 11 ± 4 mm Hg to 15 ± 4 mm Hg (p = 0.01). Removing PEEP and maintaining extraabdominal pressure was associated with a decrease in pulmonary artery diastolic but not in any of the other pressures. There was a significant correlation among all pressures. Bias (-1 mm Hg) and limits of agreement (3 to -5 mm Hg) were similar for the comparisons of absolute intraperitoneal pressure with intra-gastric and urinary bladder pressure, but larger for the comparison between intraperitoneal and inferior vena cava pressure (-5, 0 to -11 mm Hg). Bias (0 to -1 mm Hg) and limits of agreement (3 to -4 mm Hg) for pressure changes were similar for all comparisons Conclusions Our data suggest that pressure changes induced by external abdominal pressure were not modified by changing PEEP between 0 and 10 cm H20. </p
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