97 research outputs found

    Wüsteria

    Get PDF
    The last two decades have seen considerable efforts directed towards making Electronic Health Records interoperable through improvements in medical ontologies, terminologies and coding systems. Unfortunately, these efforts have been hampered by a number of influential ideas inherited from the work of Eugen Wüster, the father of terminology standardization and the founder of ISO TC 37. We here survey Wüster’s ideas – which see terminology work as being focused on the classification of concepts in people’s minds – and we argue that they serve still as the basis for a series of influential confusions. We argue further that an ontology based unambiguously, not on concepts, but on the classification of entities in reality can, by removing these confusions, make a vital contribution to ensuring the interoperability of coding systems and healthcare records in the future

    Questioning the univocity ideal. The difference between socio-cognitive Terminology and traditional Terminology

    Get PDF
    In this article we are questioning the univocity ideal of traditional Terminology. We show how traditional Terminology in line with Saussurian structuralism ignores part of the interplay between the elements of the semantic triangle. Cognitive semantics and functional linguistics have offered an alternative for the Saussurian structuralist approach. Several of their findings can be of use for the development of socio-cognitive Terminology.In the LSP of the life sciences, the structure of concepts reflects their episte-mological function. This could have consequences for the principles and methods of terminological description. While some concepts (like intron ) are clear-cut and can therefore be submitted to the principle of univocity, others (like blotting and biotech-nology) have prototype structure. For prototypically structured categories univocity can not be the aim as polysemy, synonymy and figurative language are part of their naming history

    Association between bacterial vaginosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    Objective: Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common vaginal disorder among women of reproductive age, has been suggested as co-factor in the development of cervical cancer. Previous studies examining the relationship between BV and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) provided inconsistent and conflicting results. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between these two conditions. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize published literature on the association between BV and cervical pre-cancerous lesions. An extensive search of electronic databases Medline (Pubmed) and Web of Science was performed. The key words 'bacterial vaginosis' and 'bacterial infections and vaginitis' were used in combination with 'cervical intraepithelial neoplasia', 'squamous intraepithelial lesions', 'cervical lesions', 'cervical dysplasia', and 'cervical screening'. Eligible studies required a clear description of diagnostic methods used for detecting both BV and cervical precancerous lesions. Publications were included if they either reported odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the magnitude of association between these two conditions, or presented data that allowed calculation of the OR. Results: Out of 329 articles, 17 cross-sectional and 2 incidence studies were selected. In addition, two studies conducted in The Netherlands, using the national KOPAC system, were retained. After testing for heterogeneity and publication bias, meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed, using a random effects model. Although heterogeneity among studies was high (chi(2) = 164.7, p < 0.01, I-2 = 88.5), a positive association between BV and cervical pre-cancerous lesions was found, with an overall estimated odds ratio of 1.51 (95% CI, 1.24-1.83). Meta-regression analysis could not detect a significant difference between studies based on BV diagnosis, CIN diagnosis or study population. Conclusions: Although most studies were cross-sectional and heterogeneity was high, this meta-analysis confirms a connection between BV and CIN

    Imbalances between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in maternal serum during preterm labor

    Get PDF
    Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during pregnancy and parturition. Aberrant ECM degradation by MMPs or an imbalance between MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor, however few studies have investigated MMPs or TIMPs in maternal serum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine serum concentrations of MMP-3, MMP-9 and all four TIMPs as well as MMP:TIMP ratios during term and preterm labor. Methods: A case control study with 166 singleton pregnancies, divided into four groups: (1) women with preterm birth, delivering before 34 weeks (PTB); (2) gestational age (GA) matched controls, not in preterm labor; (3) women at term in labor and (4) at term not in labor. MMP and TIMP concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Results: MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations were higher in women with PTB vs. GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.01 and p<0.001). An increase in MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratio was observed in women with PTB compared to GA matched controls (resp. p = 0.02 and p<0.001) as well as compared to women at term in labor (resp. p = 0.006 and p<0.001). Multiple regression results with groups recoded as three key covariates showed significantly higher MMP-9 concentrations, higher MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios and lower TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations for preterm labor. Significantly higher MMP-9 and TIMP-4 concentrations and MMP-9:TIMP-2 ratios were observed for labor. Conclusions: Serum MMP-9:TIMP-1 and MMP-9:TIMP-2 balances are tilting in favor of gelatinolysis during preterm labor. TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations were lower in preterm gestation, irrespective of labor, while TIMP-4 concentrations were raised in labor. These observations suggest that aberrant serum expression of MMP:TIMP ratios and TIMPs reflect pregnancy and labor status, providing a far less invasive method to determine enzymes essential in ECM remodeling during pregnancy and parturition

    Longitudinal qPCR study of the dynamics of L. crispatus, L. iners, A. vaginae, (sialidase positive) G. vaginalis, and P. bivia in the vagina

    Get PDF
    Background: To obtain more detailed understanding of the causes of disturbance of the vaginal microflora (VMF), a longitudinal study was carried out for 17 women during two menstrual cycles. Methods: Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from 17 non-pregnant, menarchal volunteers. For each woman, Gram stains were scored, the quantitative changes of 5 key vaginal species, i.e. Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. iners, (sialidase positive) Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia were quantified with qPCR and hydrogen-peroxide production was assessed on TMB+ agar. Results: Women could be divided in 9 subjects with predominantly normal VMF (grades Ia, Ib and Iab, group N) and 8 with predominantly disturbed VMF (grades I-like, II, III and IV, group D). VMF was variable between women, but overall stable for most of the women. Menses were the strongest disturbing factor of the VMF. L. crispatus was present at log7-9 cells/ml in grade Ia, Iab and II VMF, but concentrations declined 100-fold during menses. L. crispatus below log7 cells/ml corresponded with poor H2O2-production. L. iners was present at log 10 cells/ml in grade Ib, II and III VMF. Sialidase negative G. vaginalis strains (average log5 cells/ml) were detected in grade I, I-like and IV VMF. In grade II VMF, predominantly a mixture of both sialidase negative and positive G. vaginalis strains (average log9 cells/ml) were present, and predominantly sialidase positive strains in grade III VMF. The presence of A. vaginae (average log9 cells/ml) coincided with grade II and III VMF. P. bivia (log4-8 cells/ml) was mostly present in grade III vaginal microflora. L. iners, G. vaginalis, A. vaginae and P. bivia all increased around menses for group N women, and as such L. iners was considered a member of disturbed VMF. Conclusions: This qPCR-based study confirms largely the results of previous culture-based, microscopy-based and pyrosequencing-based studies

    Longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microflora in pregnancy suggests that L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora and that L. gasseri and/or L. iners are more conducive to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive however to what extent interindividual differences in vaginal <it>Lactobacillus </it>community composition determine the stability of this microflora. In a prospective cohort of pregnant women we studied the stability of the normal vaginal microflora (assessed on Gram stain) as a function of the presence of the vaginal <it>Lactobacillus </it>index species (determined through culture and molecular analysis with tRFLP).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>From 100 consecutive Caucasian women vaginal swabs were obtained at mean gestational ages of 8.6 (SD 1.4), 21.2 (SD 1.3), and 32.4 (SD 1.7) weeks, respectively. Based on Gram stain, 77 women had normal or <it>Lactobacillus</it>-dominated vaginal microflora (VMF) during the first trimester, of which 18 had grade Ia (<it>L. crispatus </it>cell morphotypes) VMF (23.4%), 16 grade Iab (<it>L. crispatus </it>and other <it>Lactobacillus </it>cell morphotypes) VMF (20.8%), and 43 grade Ib (non-<it>L. crispatus </it>cell morphotypes) VMF (55.8%). Thirteen women with normal VMF at baseline, converted in the second or third trimester (16.9%) to abnormal VMF defined as VMF dominated by non-<it>Lactobacillus </it>bacteria. Compared to grade Ia and grade Iab VMF, grade Ib VMF were 10 times (RR = 9.49, 95% CI 1.30 – 69.40) more likely to convert from normal to abnormal VMF (p = 0.009). This was explained by the observation that normal VMF comprising <it>L. gasseri/iners </it>incurred a ten-fold increased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-<it>L. gasseri/iners </it>VMF (RR 10.41, 95% CI 1.39–78.12, p = 0.008), whereas normal VMF comprising <it>L. crispatus </it>had a five-fold decreased risk of conversion to abnormal VMF relative to non-<it>L. crispatus </it>VMF (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.89, p = 0.04).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The presence of different <it>Lactobacillus </it>species with the normal vaginal microflora is a major determinant to the stability of this microflora in pregnancy: <it>L. crispatus </it>promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora while <it>L. gasseri </it>and/or <it>L. iners </it>predispose to some extent to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora.</p

    Characterisation of the vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative women in a sub-urban population of Kenya

    Get PDF
    Lactobacilli predominate normal vaginal microflora and are important in maintenance of vaginal health. The current study set out to identify and compare culture isolates of vaginal microflora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive (HIV+ ) and HIV negative (HIV- ) women at different phases during menstrual cycle from a sub-urban population of Kenya. Seventy four (74) women, 41 HIV+ and 33 HIV- , followed up two consecutive menstrual cycles, had high vaginal swabs taken to prepare Gram stains for six visits and anaerobic cultures for four. All 751 isolates identified by t-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) belong to 51 species. Species cultured more frequently in HIV+ participants were: Lactobacillus jensenii (p=0.01), Lactobacillus iners (p=0.02), Gardnerella vaginalis (p=0.01) and Peptoniphilus lacrimalis (p=0.01). Species cultured more frequently in HIV- women were Dialister micraerophilus (p=0.02) and Streptococcus agalactiae (p=0.04). Lactobacillus predominating both groups were Lactobacilli crispatus, L. jensenii, L. iners and Lactobacilli vaginalis. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was equally high in HIV+ and HIV- women. Lactobacillus and BV-associated species were cultured more frequently in HIV+ women. Minor species differences were found. Predominant Lactobacillus in culture were L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii and L. vaginalis. These women had lower concentrations of lactobacilli in vaginal microflora than observed in previous studies of Caucasian women

    Quantitative determination by real-time PCR of four vaginal Lactobacillus species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae indicates an inverse relationship between L. gasseri and L. iners

    Get PDF
    Background: Most studies of the vaginal microflora have been based on culture or on qualitative molecular techniques. Here we applied existing real-time PCR formats for Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis and developed new formats for Atopobium vaginae, L. iners and L. jensenii to obtain a quantitative non culture-based determination of these species in 71 vaginal samples from 32 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women aged between 18 and 45 years. Results: The 71 vaginal microflora samples of these women were categorized, using the Ison and Hay criteria, as refined by Verhelst et al. (2005), as follows: grade la: 8 samples, grade lab: 10, grade lb: 13, grade I-like: 10, grade II: 11, grade III: 12 and grade IV: 7. L. crispatus was found in all but 5 samples and was the most frequent Lactobacillus species detected. A significantly lower concentration of L. crispatus was found in grades II (p < 0.0001) and III (p = 0.002) compared to grade I. L. jensenii was found in all grades but showed higher concentration in grade lab than in grade la (p = 0.024). A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were present in high concentrations in grade III, with log(10) median concentrations (log(10) MC), respectively of 9.0 and 9.2 cells/ml. Twenty (38.5%) of the 52 G. vaginalis positive samples were also positive for A. vaginae. In grade II we found almost no L. iners (log(10) MC: 0/ml) but a high concentration of L. gasseri (log(10) MC: 8.7/ml). By contrast, in grade III we found a high concentration of L. iners (log(10) MC: 8.3/ml) and a low concentration of L. gasseri (log(10) MC: 0/ml). These results show a negative association between L. gasseri and L. iners (r = -0.397, p = 0.001) and between L. gasseri and A. vaginae (r = -0.408, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In our study we found a clear negative association between L. iners and L. gasseri and between A. vaginae and L. gasseri. Our results do not provide support for the generally held proposition that grade II is an intermediate stage between grades I and III, because L. gasseri, abundant in grade II is not predominant in grade III, whereas L. iners, abundant in grade III is present only in low numbers in grade II samples

    Modified classification of Gram-stained vaginal smears to predict spontaneous preterm birth : a prospective cohort study

    Get PDF
    In a prospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive value of a modified vaginal smear scoring method to identify risk for spontaneous preterm birth
    corecore