2,102 research outputs found

    Precoder-Aided Iterative Detection Assisted Multilevel Coding and Three-Dimensional EXIT-Chart Analysis

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    A novel three-dimensional (3D) EXIT chart is developed for investigating the iterative behaviour of Multilevel Coding (MLC) invoking Multistage Decoding (MSD). The extrinsic information transfer characteristics of both the symbol-to-bit demapper used and those of the differentprotection constituent decoders suggest that potential improvements can be achieved by appropriately designing the demapper. The proposed 3D EXIT chart is then invoked for studying the precoder-aided multilevel coding scheme employing both MSD and Parallel Independent Decoding (PID) for communicating over AWGN and uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels with the aid of 8PSK modulation. At BER=10?5, the precoder was capable of enhancing the achievable Eb/N0 performance by 0.5dB to 2.5dB over AWGN and Rayleigh channels, respectively

    Multiple Broken Symmetries in Striped La2x_{2-x}Bax_{x}CuO4_{4} detected by the Field Symmetric Nernst Effect

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    We report on a thermoelectric investigation of the stripe and superconducting phases of the cuprate La2x_{2-x}Bax_{x}CuO4_{4} near the x=1/8x=1/8 doping known to host stable stripes. We use the doping and magnetic field dependence of field-symmetric Nernst effect features to delineate the phenomenology of these phases. Our measurements are consistent with prior reports of time-reversal symmetry breaking signatures above the superconducting TcT_{{\rm c}}, and crucially detect a sharp, robust, field-invariant peak at the stripe charge order temperature, TCOT_{{\rm {\scriptscriptstyle CO}}}. Our observations suggest the onset of a nontrivial charge ordered phase at TCOT_{{\rm {\scriptscriptstyle CO}}}, and the subsequent presence of spontaneously generated vortices over a broad temperature range before the emergence of bulk superconductivity in LBCO

    An Ultra-High-Vacuum Rotating Sample Manipulator with Cryogenic Cooling

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    We report a homebuilt ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) rotating sample manipulator with cryogenic cooling. The sample holder is thermally anchored to a built-in cryogenic cold head through flexible copper beryllium strips, permitting continuous sample rotation. A similar contact mechanism is implemented for the electrical wiring to the sample holder for thermometry. The apparatus thus enables continuous sample rotation at regulated cryogenic temperatures in a UHV environment. We discuss the potential applications of this apparatus for cryogenic sputtering.Comment: Cryogenics, ultra-high vacuum, sample manipulato

    Penetration depth study of LaOs4_4Sb12_{12}: Multiband s-wave superconductivity

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    We measured the magnetic penetration depth λ(T)\lambda(T) in single crystals of LaOs4_{4}Sb12_{12} (TcT_c=0.74 K) down to 85 mK using a tunnel diode oscillator technique. The observed low-temperature exponential dependence indicates a s-wave gap. Fitting the low temperature data to BCS s-wave expression gives the zero temperature gap value Δ(0)=(1.34±0.07)kBTc\Delta (0)= (1.34 \pm 0.07) k_B T_c which is significantly smaller than the BCS value of 1.76kBTck_B T_c. In addition, the normalized superfluid density ρ(T)\rho(T) shows an unusually long suppression near TcT_c, and are best fit by a two-band s-wave model.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    SCUBA-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey (STUDIES). IV. Spatial Clustering and Halo Masses of Submillimeter Galaxies

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    We analyze an extremely deep 450 μm image (1σ = 0.56 mJy beam−1) of a sime300 arcmin2 area in the CANDELS/COSMOS field as part of the Sub-millimeter Common User Bolometric Array-2 Ultra Deep Imaging EAO Survey. We select a robust (signal-to-noise ratio ≥4) and flux-limited (≥4 mJy) sample of 164 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at 450 μm that have K-band counterparts in the COSMOS2015 catalog identified from radio or mid-infrared imaging. Utilizing this SMG sample and the 4705 K-band-selected non-SMGs that reside within the noise level ≤1 mJy beam−1 region of the 450 μm image as a training set, we develop a machine-learning classifier using K-band magnitude and color–color pairs based on the 13-band photometry available in this field. We apply the trained machine-learning classifier to the wider COSMOS field (1.6 deg2) using the same COSMOS2015 catalog and identify a sample of 6182 SMG candidates with similar colors. The number density, radio and/or mid-infrared detection rates, redshift and stellar-mass distributions, and the stacked 450 μm fluxes of these SMG candidates, from the S2COSMOS observations of the wide field, agree with the measurements made in the much smaller CANDELS field, supporting the effectiveness of the classifier. Using this SMG candidate sample, we measure the two-point autocorrelation functions from z = 3 down to z = 0.5. We find that the SMG candidates reside in halos with masses of sime(2.0 ± 0.5) × 1013 h −1 M ☉ across this redshift range. We do not find evidence of downsizing that has been suggested by other recent observational studies

    High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of HCV among HIV-1 Infected People from Various High-Risk Groups in China

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    BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV is a significant global public health problem and a major consideration for anti-HIV-1 treatment. HCV infection among HIV-1 positive people who are eligible for the newly launched nationwide anti-HIV-1 treatment program in China has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY: A nationwide survey of HIV-1 positive injection drug uses (IDU), former paid blood donors (FBD), and sexually transmitted cases from multiple provinces including the four most affected provinces in China was conducted. HCV prevalence and genetic diversity were determined. We found that IDU and FBD have extremely high rates of HCV infection (97% and 93%, respectively). Surprisingly, people who acquired HIV-1 through sexual contact also had a higher rate of HCV infection (20%) than the general population. HIV-1 subtype and HCV genotypes were amazingly similar among FBD from multiple provinces stretching from Central to Northeast China. However, although patterns of overland trafficking of heroin and distinct HIV-1 subtypes could be detected among IDU, HCV genotypes of IDU were more diverse and exhibited significant regional differences. CONCLUSION: Emerging HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and possible sexual transmission of HCV in China require urgent prevention measures and should be taken into consideration in the nationwide antiretroviral treatment program

    JMJD6 is a tumorigenic factor and therapeutic target in neuroblastoma

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    Chromosome 17q21-ter is commonly gained in neuroblastoma, but it is unclear which gene in the region is important for tumorigenesis. The JMJD6 gene at 17q21-ter activates gene transcription. Here we show that JMJD6 forms protein complexes with N-Myc and BRD4, and is important for E2F2, N-Myc and c-Myc transcription. Knocking down JMJD6 reduces neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival in vitro and tumor progression in mice, and high levels of JMJD6 expression in human neuroblastoma tissues independently predict poor patient prognosis. In addition, JMJD6 gene is associated with transcriptional super-enhancers. Combination therapy with the CDK7/super-enhancer inhibitor THZ1 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat synergistically reduces JMJD6, E2F2, N-Myc, c-Myc expression, induces apoptosis in vitro and leads to neuroblastoma tumor regression in mice, which are significantly reversed by forced JMJD6 over-expression. Our findings therefore identify JMJD6 as a neuroblastoma tumorigenesis factor, and the combination therapy as a treatment strategy

    Tailoring force sensitivity and selectivity by microstructure engineering of multidirectional electronic skins

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    Electronic skins (e-skins) with high sensitivity to multidirectional mechanical stimuli are crucial for healthcare monitoring devices, robotics, and wearable sensors. In this study, we present piezoresistive e-skins with tunable force sensitivity and selectivity to multidirectional forces through the engineered microstructure geometries (i.e., dome, pyramid, and pillar). Depending on the microstructure geometry, distinct variations in contact area and localized stress distribution are observed under different mechanical forces (i.e., normal, shear, stretching, and bending), which critically affect the force sensitivity, selectivity, response/relaxation time, and mechanical stability of e-skins. Microdome structures present the best force sensitivities for normal, tensile, and bending stresses. In particular, microdome structures exhibit extremely high pressure sensitivities over broad pressure ranges (47,062 kPa(-1) in the range of < 1 kPa, 90,657 kPa(-1) in the range of 1-10 kPa, and 30,214 kPa(-1) in the range of 10-26 kPa). On the other hand, for shear stress, micropillar structures exhibit the highest sensitivity. As proof-of-concept applications in healthcare monitoring devices, we show that our e-skins can precisely monitor acoustic waves, breathing, and human artery/carotid pulse pressures. Unveiling the relationship between the microstructure geometry of e-skins and their sensing capability would provide a platform for future development of high-performance microstructured e-skins

    Targeting Mitochondrial Fission Using Mdivi-1 in A Clinically Relevant Large Animal Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Study

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    BACKGROUND: New treatments are needed to reduce myocardial infarct size (MI) and prevent heart failure (HF) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Studies in rodent AMI models showed that genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission, induced by acute ischemia and reperfusion, reduced MI size. Whether targeting mitochondrial fission at the onset of reperfusion is also cardioprotective in a clinically-relevant large animal AMI model remains to be determined. METHODS: Adult pigs (30–40 kg) were subjected to closed-chest 90-min left anterior descending artery ischemia followed by 72 h of reperfusion and were randomized to receive an intracoronary bolus of either mdivi-1 (1.2 mg/kg, a small molecule inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1) or vehicle control, 10-min prior to reperfusion. The left ventricular (LV) size and function were both assessed by transthoracic echocardiography prior to AMI and after 72 h of reperfusion. MI size and the area-at-risk (AAR) were determined using dual staining with Tetrazolium and Evans blue. Heart samples were collected for histological determination of fibrosis and for electron microscopic analysis of mitochondrial morphology. RESULTS: A total of 14 pigs underwent the treatment protocols (eight control and six mdivi-1). Administration of mdivi-1 immediately prior to the onset of reperfusion did not reduce MI size (MI size as % of AAR: Control 49.2 ± 8.6 vs. mdivi-1 50.5 ± 11.4; p = 0.815) or preserve LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction %: Control 67.5 ± 0.4 vs. mdivi-1 59.6 ± 0.6; p = 0.420), when compared to vehicle control. Similarly, there were no differences in mitochondrial morphology or myocardial fibrosis between mdivi-1 and vehicle control groups. Conclusion: Our pilot study has shown that treatment with mdivi-1 (1.2 mg/kg) at the onset of reperfusion did not reduce MI size or preserve LV function in the clinically-relevant closed-chest pig AMI model. A larger study, testing different doses of mdivi-1 or using a more specific Drp1 inhibitor are required to confirm these findings

    Biodegradable, flexible silicon nanomembrane-based NO x gas sensor system with record-high performance for transient environmental monitors and medical implants

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    Abstract: A novel transient electronics technology that is capable of completely dissolving or decomposing in certain conditions after a period of operation offers unprecedented opportunities for medical implants, environmental sensors, and other applications. Here, we describe a biodegradable, flexible silicon-based electronic system that detects NO species with a record-breaking sensitivity of 136 Rs (5 ppm, NO2) and 100-fold selectivity for NO species over other substances with a fast response (~30 s) and recovery (~60 s). The exceptional features primarily depend on not only materials, dimensions, and design layouts but also temperatures and electrical operations. Large-scale sensor arrays in a mechanically pliable configuration exhibit negligible deterioration in performance under various modes of applied loads, consistent with mechanics modeling. In vitro evaluations demonstrate the capability and stability of integrated NOx devices in severe wet environments for biomedical applications
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