194 research outputs found

    Exploding bridgewire detonator simulator

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    Tests indicate that electric detonator simulators of the exploding bridgewire type will not fire as a result of the application of a direct current power of one watt for 5 minutes. The detonator also will not fire if the protective gap fails and the firing stimulus is inadvertently applied

    Potential applications of digital, visible, and infrared data from geostationary environmental satellites

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    An hourly, digital data base from the Visible/Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) instrument on the GOES-1 and SMS-2 geostationary satellites is described. Several examples of developmental applications of these quantitative digital data are presented. These include a review of recent attempts to develop products that are of use to meteorologists who provide services to aviation, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, oceanography, and climatology. The sample products include high resolution thermal gradients of land and ocean surfaces, thermal change analyses, fruit frost/freeze application, cloud-top altitude analysis, analysis of hurricane characteristics, and analyses of solar insolation

    Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalyses of the Crystalline Components of Human and Animal Dental Calculi

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    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, -TCMP; CO3-substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, -TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

    Justice as fairness in preparing for emergency remote teaching: A case from Botswana

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    Background. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated drastic changes to undergraduate medical training at the University of Botswana (UB). To save the academic year when campus was locked down, the Department of Medical Education conducted a needs assessment to determine the readiness for emergency remote teaching (ERT) of the Faculty of Medicine, UB. Objectives. To report on the findings of needs assessment surveys to assess learner and teaching staff preparedness for fair and just ERT, as defined by philosopher John Rawls. Methods. Needs assessment surveys were conducted using Office 365 Forms distributed via WhatsApp, targeting medical students and teaching staff during the 5 undergraduate years. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results. Ninety-two percent (266/289) of students and 73.5% (62/84) of teaching staff responded. Surveys revealed a high penetration of smartphones among students, but poor internet accessibility and affordability in homes. Some teaching staff also reported internet and device insufficiencies. Only WhatsApp was accessible to students and teaching staff. Conclusions. For equitable access to ERT in the future, the surveys revealed infrastructural improvement needs, including wider, stronger, affordable WiFi coverage within Botswana and enhanced digital infrastructures in educational institutions, with increased support for students

    Genome-wide association mapping for grain manganese in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using a multi-experiment approach

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    Funding Information: Acknowledgements This research was partly supported by the US National Science Foundation, Plant Genome Research Program (grant #IOS 0701119 to DES, MLG and SRMP) and The US National Institutes of Health (grant 2P4ES007373 to MLG and DES). PR is a PhD student funded by the Thai Government Scholarship.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Steady-state kinetic studies with the polysulfonate U-9843, an HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor

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    The tetramer of ethylenesulfonic acid (U-9843) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT * and possesses excellent antiviral activity at nontoxic doses in HIV-1 infected lymphocytes grown in tissue culture. Kinetic studies of the HIV-1 RT-catalyzed RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity were carried out in order to determine if the inhibitor interacts with the template: primer or the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) binding sites of the polymerase. Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which are based on the establishment of a rapid equilibrium between the enzyme and its substrates, proved inadequate for the analysis of the experimental data. The data were thus analyzed using steady-state Briggs-Haldane kinetics assuming that the template:primer binds to the enzyme first, followed by the binding of the dNTP and that the polymerase is a processive enzyme. Based on these assumptions, a velocity equation was derived which allows the calculation of all the specific forward and backward rate constants for the reactions occurring between the enzyme, its substrates and the inhibitor. The calculated rate constants are in agreement with this model and the results indicated that U-9843 acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to both the template:primer and dNTP binding sites. Hence, U-9843 exhibits the same binding affinity for the free enzyme as for the enzyme-substrate complexes and must inhibit the RT polymerase by interacting with a site distinct from the substrate binding sites. Thus, U-9843 appears to impair an event occurring after the formation of the enzyme-substrate complexes, which involves either an event leading up to the formation of the phosphoester bond, the formation of the ester bond itself or translocation of the enzyme relative to its template:primer following the formation of the ester bond.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/42867/1/18_2005_Article_BF01992044.pd