839 research outputs found

    Lay intuitions about overall evaluations of experiences

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    Previous research has identified important determinants of overall evaluations for experiences lived across time. By means of a novel guessing task, I study what decision-makers themselves consider important. As Informants, some participants live and evaluate an experience. As Guessers, others have to infer its overall evaluation by asking Informants questions. I rewarded accurate inferences, and analyzed and classified the questions in four experiments involving auditory, gustatory and viewing experiences. Results show that Guessers thought of overall evaluations as reflecting average momentary impressions. Moreover and alternatively, they tended to consider the personality and attitudes of the experiencing person, experience-specific holistic judgments and behavioral intentions regarding the experience. Thus, according to lay intuitions, overall evaluations are more than a reflection of the experience’s momentary impressions

    A New Model for Solving Time-Cost-Quality Trade-Off Problems in Construction

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    <div><p>A poor quality affects project makespan and its total costs negatively, but it can be recovered by repair works during construction. We construct a new non-linear programming model based on the classic multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem considering repair works. In order to obtain satisfactory quality without a high increase of project cost, the objective is to minimize total quality cost which consists of the prevention cost and failure cost according to Quality-Cost Analysis. A binary dependent normal distribution function is adopted to describe the activity quality; Cumulative quality is defined to determine whether to initiate repair works, according to the different relationships among activity qualities, namely, the coordinative and precedence relationship. Furthermore, a shuffled frog-leaping algorithm is developed to solve this discrete trade-off problem based on an adaptive serial schedule generation scheme and adjusted activity list. In the program of the algorithm, the frog-leaping progress combines the crossover operator of genetic algorithm and a permutation-based local search. Finally, an example of a construction project for a framed railway overpass is provided to examine the algorithm performance, and it assist in decision making to search for the appropriate makespan and quality threshold with minimal cost.</p></div

    Table_1_Inequality in benefit distribution of reducing the outpatient cost-sharing: evidence from the outpatient pooling scheme in China.DOCX

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    ObjectiveThe implementation of the outpatient pooling scheme in China has substantially elevated the compensation levels for outpatient expenses. This study aims to assess whether socioeconomically disadvantaged enrollees benefit proportionally compared to their non-disadvantaged counterparts.MethodA cohort comprising 14,581 Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URRBMI) enrollees and 830 Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) enrollees was derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2018. Outpatient pooling scheme benefits were evaluated based on two metrics: the probability of obtaining benefits and the magnitude of benefits (reimbursement amounts and ratios). Two-part models were employed to adjust outpatient benefits for healthcare needs. Inequality in benefit distribution was assessed using the concentration curve and concentration index (CI).ResultsFollowing adjustments for healthcare needs, the CI for the probability of receiving outpatient benefits for URRBMI and UEBMI enrollees were − 0.0760 and − 0.0514, respectively, indicating an evident pro-poor pattern under the outpatient pooling scheme. However, the CIs of reimbursement amounts (0.0708) and ratio (0.0761) for URRBMI recipients were positive, signifying a discernible pro-rich inequality in the degree of benefits. Conversely, socioeconomically disadvantaged UEBMI enrollees received higher reimbursement amounts and ratios.ConclusionDespite a higher likelihood of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups receiving outpatient benefits, a pro-rich inequality persists in the degree of benefits under the outpatient pooling scheme in China. Comprehensive strategies, including expanding outpatient financial benefits, adopting distinct reimbursement standards, and enhancing the accessibility of outpatient care, need to be implemented to achieve equity in benefits distribution.</p

    different approach for cumulative quality.

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    <p>different approach for cumulative quality.</p

    Activity qualities of three sets of alternative construction processes.

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    <p>Activity qualities of three sets of alternative construction processes.</p

    Data fitting results.

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    <p>Data fitting results.</p

    An example of crossover.

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    <p>An example of crossover.</p

    Comparison of total quality costs.

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    <p>Comparison of total quality costs.</p

    An example of coding.

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    <p>An example of coding.</p

    Analysis of the construction project.

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    <p>Analysis of the construction project.</p