23 research outputs found

    A 10-year retrospective review of Salmonella infections at the Children\u27s Hospital in London, Ontario

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    OBJECTIVES: To describe Salmonella infections in children presenting to the Children\u27s Hospital (London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario), to assess risk factors for infection and to examine whether younger children, particularly infants younger than 12 weeks of age, experience higher morbidity than older children. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective review of children with Salmonella infections at the Children\u27s Hospital was conducted. Patient demographics, risk factors for infection, clinical characteristics, bacteriology and outcome were collected from the hospital charts and laboratory records. Data were separated into groups based on age and recent use of antibiotics to analyze differences in outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty-six children with Salmonella infections presented to the Children\u27s Hospital over a 10-year period. Common risk factors for Salmonella infection included having sick contacts, living in a rural area, recent travel, contact with pets (especially reptiles) and exposure to local water. Younger age was associated with an increased likelihood of admission to hospital, treatment with antibiotics and a longer course of antibiotic therapy. This was true when comparing older infants with those younger than 12 weeks of age. Patients recently treated with antibiotics and those with significant underlying medical conditions were more likely to be admitted. CONCLUSIONS: A wider knowledge of the epidemiological risk factors for Salmonella infection may improve diagnosis. Higher admission rates were expected in children younger than 12 weeks of age, those recently treated with antibiotics and those who had a significant underlying medical condition. A prospective, multicentre study is needed to further address questions regarding increased illness severity and appropriate management of Salmonella infections in children younger than 12 weeks of age. ©2010 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved

    Clinical approach to the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis in the pediatric patient

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    Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important and treatable cause of acute encephalitis. Diagnosis of AE in a developing child is challenging because of overlap in clinical presentations with other diseases and complexity of normal behavior changes. Existing diagnostic criteria for adult AE require modification to be applied to children, who differ from adults in their clinical presentations, paraclinical findings, autoantibody profiles, treatment response, and long-term outcomes.A subcommittee of the Autoimmune Encephalitis International Working Group collaborated through conference calls and email correspondence to consider the pediatric-specific approach to AE. The subcommittee reviewed the literature of relevant AE studies and sought additional input from other expert clinicians and researchers.Existing consensus criteria for adult AE were refined for use in children. Provisional pediatric AE classification criteria and an algorithm to facilitate early diagnosis are proposed. There is also discussion about how to distinguish pediatric AE from conditions within the differential diagnosis.Diagnosing AE is based on the combination of a clinical history consistent with pediatric AE and supportive diagnostic testing, which includes but is not dependent on antibody testing. The proposed criteria and algorithm require validation in prospective pediatric cohorts.Copyright © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology

    Overlapping demyelinating syndromes and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis

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    Objective: To report the clinical, radiological, and immunological association of demyelinating disorders with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Methods: Clinical and radiological analysis was done of a cohort of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Determination of antibodies to NMDAR, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was performed using brain immunohistochemistry and cell-based assays. Results: Twenty-three of 691 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis had prominent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or clinical features of demyelination. Group 1 included 12 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis was preceded or followed by independent episodes of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (5 cases, 4 anti-AQP4 positive) or brainstem or multifocal demyelinating syndromes (7 cases, all anti-MOG positive). Group 2 included 11 patients in whom anti-NMDAR encephalitis occurred simultaneously with MRI and symptoms compatible with demyelination (5 AQ4 positive, 2 MOG positive). Group 3 (136 controls) included 50 randomly selected patients with typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 56 with NMO, and 30 with multiple sclerosis; NMDAR antibodies were detected only in the 50 anti-NMDAR patients, MOG antibodies in 3 of 50 anti-NMDAR and 1 of 56 NMO patients, and AQP4 antibodies in 48 of 56 NMO and 1 of 50 anti-NMDAR patients (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons with Groups 1 and 2). Most patients improved with immunotherapy, but compared with anti-NMDAR encephalitis the demyelinating episodes required more intensive therapy and resulted in more residual deficits. Only 1 of 23 NMDAR patients with signs of demyelination had ovarian teratoma compared with 18 of 50 anti-NMDAR controls (p = 0.011). Interpretation: Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis may develop concurrent or separate episodes of demyelinating disorders, and conversely patients with NMO or demyelinating disorders with atypical symptoms (eg, dyskinesias, psychosis) may have anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis

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    To create an international consensus treatment recommendation for pediatric NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE).After selection of a panel of 27 experts with representation from all continents, a 2-step Delphi method was adopted to develop consensus on relevant treatment regimens and statements, along with key definitions in pediatric NMDARE (disease severity, failure to improve, and relapse). Finally, an online face-to-face meeting was held to reach consensus (defined as ?75% agreement).Corticosteroids are recommended in all children with NMDARE (pulsed IV preferred), with additional IV immunoglobulin or plasma exchange in severe patients. Prolonged first-line immunotherapy can be offered for up to 3-12 months (oral corticosteroids or monthly IV corticosteroids/immunoglobulin), dependent on disease severity. Second-line treatments are recommended for cases refractory to first-line therapies (rituximab preferred over cyclophosphamide) and should be considered about 2 weeks after first-line initiation. Further immunotherapies for refractory disease 1-3 months after second-line initiation include another second-line treatment (such as cyclophosphamide) and escalation to tocilizumab. Maintenance immune suppression beyond 6 months (such as rituximab redosing or mycophenolate mofetil) is generally not required, except for patients with a more severe course or prolonged impairments and hospitalization. For patients with relapsing disease, second-line and prolonged maintenance therapy should be considered. The treatment of NMDARE following herpes simplex encephalitis should be similar to idiopathic NMDARE. Broad guidance is provided for the total treatment duration (first line, second line, and maintenance), which is dictated by the severity and clinical course (i.e., median 3, 9 and 18 months in the best, average, and worst responders, respectively). Recommendations on the timing of oncologic searches are provided.These international consensus recommendations for the management of pediatric NMDARE aim to standardize the treatment and provide practical guidance for clinicians, rather than absolute rules. A similar recommendation could be applicable to adult patients.Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology

    The headache of teenage acne

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