57 research outputs found

    Valley depolarization in monolayer WSe2

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    We have systematically examined the circular polarization of monolayer WSe2 at different temperature, excitation energy and exciton density. The valley depolarization in WSe2 is experimentally confirmed to be governed by the intervalley electron-hole exchange interaction. More importantly, a non-monotonic dependence of valley circular polarization on the excitation power density has been observed, providing the experimental evidence for the non-monotonic dependence of exciton intervalley scattering rate on the excited exciton density. The physical origination of our experimental observations has been proposed, which is in analogy to the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism that is operative in conventional GaAs quantum well systems. Our experimental results are fundamentally important for well understanding the valley psudospin relaxation in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides

    Growth of Large Domain Epitaxial Graphene on the C-Face of SiC

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    Growth of epitaxial graphene on the C-face of SiC has been investigated. Using a confinement controlled sublimation (CCS) method, we have achieved well controlled growth and been able to observe propagation of uniform monolayer graphene. Surface patterns uncover two important aspects of the growth, i.e. carbon diffusion and stoichiometric requirement. Moreover, a new "stepdown" growth mode has been discovered. Via this mode, monolayer graphene domains can have an area of hundreds of square micrometers, while, most importantly, step bunching is avoided and the initial uniformly stepped SiC surface is preserved. The stepdown growth provides a possible route towards uniform epitaxial graphene in wafer size without compromising the initial flat surface morphology of SiC.Comment: 18 pages, 8 figure

    Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement of MoS2 through Defect Engineering and Oxygen Bonding

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    We report on a strong photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of monolayer MoS2 through defect engineering and oxygen bonding. Micro- PL and Raman images clearly reveal that the PL enhancement occurs at cracks/defects formed during high temperature vacuum annealing. The PL enhancement at crack/defect sites could be as high as thousands of times after considering the laser spot size. The main reasons of such huge PL enhancement include: (1) the oxygen chemical adsorption induced heavy p doping and the conversion from trion to exciton; (2) the suppression of non-radiative recombination of excitons at defect sites as verified by low temperature PL measurements. First principle calculations reveal a strong binding energy of ~2.395 eV for oxygen molecule adsorbed on an S vacancy of MoS2. The chemical adsorbed oxygen also provides a much more effective charge transfer (0.997 electrons per O2) compared to physical adsorbed oxygen on ideal MoS2 surface. We also demonstrate that the defect engineering and oxygen bonding could be easily realized by oxygen plasma irradiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy further confirms the formation of Mo-O bonding. Our results provide a new route for modulating the optical properties of two dimensional semiconductors. The strong and stable PL from defects sites of MoS2 may have promising applications in optoelectronic devices.Comment: 23 pages, 9 figures, to appear in ACS Nan

    Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation.

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    This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn500767b.We demonstrate wide-band ultrafast optical pulse generation at 1, 1.5, and 2 ÎĽm using a single-polymer composite saturable absorber based on double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). The freestanding optical quality polymer composite is prepared from nanotubes dispersed in water with poly(vinyl alcohol) as the host matrix. The composite is then integrated into ytterbium-, erbium-, and thulium-doped fiber laser cavities. Using this single DWNT-polymer composite, we achieve 4.85 ps, 532 fs, and 1.6 ps mode-locked pulses at 1066, 1559, and 1883 nm, respectively, highlighting the potential of DWNTs for wide-band ultrafast photonics.We acknowledge funding from EPSRC GR/ S97613/01, EP/E500935/1, the ERC Grant NANOPOTS, a Royal Society Brian Mercer Award for Innovation. A.C.F. is a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award holder. V.N. wishes to acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant 2DNanoCaps) and Science Foundation Ireland, P.T. from National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grants No. 11225421, F.B. from the Newton International Fellowship, Z.S. from Teknologiateollisuus TT-100, the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (No. 631610), and Aalto University, T.H. from NSFC (Grant No. 61150110487), and the Royal Academy of Engineering (Graphlex)
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