102 research outputs found

    Housing and Ethnicity in Soviet Tartu

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    Research on residential and housing inequality in the cities under central planninghas a long tradition. However, previous studies have mostly focused on age and socialsegregation, while ethnic di.fferences have been poorly investigated. This researchclarifies the ethnic di.fferences in housing ownership and living conditions in Tartu,Estonia, in the Sovi et period. We use individual-level data from the 1989 census andmultivariate analysis. Our analysis shows that, first, non-Estonians had better accessta state housing than Estonians. The ethnic di.fferences decrease, but remain significantwhen controlling for compositional di.fferences. Second, it appears that Estonianshad more living space, while non-Estonians lived in more comfortable conditions.Di.fferences in housing ownership and population composition explain most afthe ethnic di.fferences in housing size, but the di.fferences in housingfacilities remain.We argue that both the state policy and the di.fferent traditions and values were responsiblefor the housing di.fferences between Estonians and non-Estonians in Tartuduring the Soviet period. The role af the pre-WWII legacy should be considered as well

    New perspectives on ethnic segregation over time and space. A domains approach

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    The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC [Grant Agreement No. 615159] (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood effects); from the Marie Curie programme under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/Career Integration [Grant No. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728] (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects), from the Estonian Research Council (Institutional Research Grant IUT2-17 on Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions); and from the Estonian Science Foundation [Grant Nos. 8774 and 9247].Ethnic segregation has most often been studied at the place of residence, segregation being defined on the basis of the relative presence of different groups within city neighbourhoods. It is increasingly recognized, however, that segregation occurs in different ways in different domains (such as the workplace, leisure, social media, etc.), the residential domain being just one of many in which segregation can occur. In this research note we present the domains approach to segregation and outline some its conceptual, methodological and empirical underpinnings and challenges.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Ethnic Dimensions of Suburbanisation in Estonia

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    Large scale suburbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon in East Central Europe and responsible for major socio-spatial changes in metropolitan areas. Little is known about the ethnic dimensions of this process. However, large minority population groups, mainly ethnic Russians, remained into the former member states of the Soviet Union after its dissolution in 1991. We use individual level Estonia Census data in order to investigate the ethnic dimensions of suburbanisation. The results show that ethnic minorities have a considerably lower probability to suburbanise compared to the majority population, and minorities are less likely to move to rural municipalities – the main sites of suburban change – in the suburban ring of cities. Individual characteristics that measure strong ties with the majority population and host society exert a positive effect on ethnic minority suburbanization, and on settling in rural municipalities.suburbanisation, ethnicity, Census data, East Central Europe, Estonia

    Activity Spaces and Big Data Sources in Segregation Research : A Methodological Review

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    The activity space approach is increasingly mobilized in spatial segregation research to broaden its scope from residential neighborhoods to other socio-spatial contexts of people. Activity space segregation research is an emerging field, characterized by quick adaptation of novel data sources and interdisciplinary methodologies. In this article, we present a methodological review of activity space segregation research by identifying approaches, methods and data sources applied. First, our review highlights that the activity space approach enables segregation to be studied from the perspectives of people, places and mobility flows. Second, the results reveal that both traditional data sources and novel big data sources are valuable for studying activity space segregation. While traditional sources provide rich background information on people for examining the social dimension of segregation, big data sources bring opportunities to address temporality, and increase the spatial extent and resolution of analysis. Hence, big data sources have an important role in mediating the conceptual change from a residential neighborhood-based to an activity space-based approach to segregation. Still, scholars should address carefully the challenges and uncertainties that big data entail for segregation studies. Finally, we propose a framework for a three-step methodological workflow for activity space segregation analysis, and outline future research avenues to move toward more conceptual clarity, integrated analysis framework and methodological rigor.Peer reviewe

    Overlap Between Industrial Niching and Workplace Segregation: Role of Immigration Policy, Culture and Country of Origin

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    This article focuses on two dimensions of labour market integration, sorting into different industries (niching) and sorting into workplace establishments (segregation) by share of migrant workers. We seek to understand to what degree these two dimensions of immigrants' lack of labour market integration - niching and segregation - overlap with each other. The study is based on Finnish individual, panel and relational registry data, and we focus on the three largest immigrant groups - Estonians, Russians and Swedes - who have arrived from countries with different wealth levels to the Helsinki metropolitan area. By applying generalised structural equation modelling, we estimate industrial niching and workplace segregation - measured as a degree of overconcentration of immigrants in particular industries and workplace establishments, respectively - jointly. Our main findings show a strong overlap between niching and segregation for all ethnic groups. Segregation and niching levels are the highest among Estonians, but very similar for Russians and Swedes. These findings do not support the cultural similarity argument in immigrant labour market integration. Rather, immigration policy and origin country wealth level may be determinant. Additionally, we found that females are more likely than males to be employed simultaneously in niched industries and segregated workplace establishments, supporting the thesis of gender-based networks

    Types of spatial mobility and change in people’s ethnic residential contexts

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    This research received funding from the following sources: Institutional Research Grant No. IUT2-17 of the Ministry of Education and Science Estonia; Grant No. 9247 of the Estonian Science Foundation; the European Research Council under the EU FP7 Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n. 615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood effects), the Marie Curie programme under the EU FP7 Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects).Background : Most studies of the ethnic composition of destination neighbourhoods after residential moves do not take into account the types of moves people have made. However, from an individual perspective, different types of moves may result in neighbourhood environments which differ in terms of their ethnic composition from those in which the individuals previously lived. Objective : We investigate how the ethnic residential context changes for individuals as a result of different types of mobility (immobility, intra-urban mobility, suburbanisation, and long-distance migration) for residents of the segregated post-Soviet city of Tallinn. We compare the extent to which Estonian and Russian speakers integrate in residential terms. Methods : Using unique longitudinal Census data (2000-2011) we tracked changes in the individual ethnic residential context of both groups. Results : We found that the moving destinations of Estonian and Russian speakers diverge. When Estonians move, their new neighbourhood generally possesses a lower percentage of Russian speakers compared with when Russian speakers move, as well as compared with their previous neighbourhoods. For Russian speakers, the percentage of other Russian speakers in their residential surroundings decreases only for those who move to the rural suburbs or who move over longer distances to rural villages. Contribution : By applying a novel approach of tracking the changes in the ethnic residential context of individuals for all mobility types, we were able to demonstrate that the two largest ethnolinguistic groups in Estonia tend to behave as ‘parallel populations’ and that residential integration remains slow.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Socio-Economic Segregation and Income Inequality:

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    This book attempts to get a true global overview of trends in urban inequality and residential socio-economic segregation in a large number of cities all over the world. It investigates the link between income inequality and socio-economic residential segregation in 24 large urban regions in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. In many ways the book is a sequel to the earlier book “Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities” which focussed solely on trends in Europe. Although that book was very well received, readers also asked whether trends in Europe were representative for what is happening in the rest of the world. This new book is a direct response to that question and aims to be more globally representative. The main outcome of this book is the proposal of a Global Segregation Thesis, which combines ideas of rising levels of inequality, rising levels of socio-economic segregation, and important changes in the social geography of cities. At the time of writing this preface, the world is still grappling with the global outbreak of COVID-19. Now the spread of the virus is slowing down in the Global North, the Global South is hit very hard. In response to the spread of the virus, unprecedented measures were taken, having a huge impact on the world economy. It is widely expected that these measures will lead to a deep economic crisis, which will hit those who are the most vulnerable hardest. Some of the chapters in this book mention the COVID-19 crisis, and it is expected that this crisis will speed up the increase in inequality, both globally and locally, leading to an accelerated growth in socio-economic segregation in cities. This book would not have been possible without the generous contributions from author teams from all over the world. We are very grateful for their generosity and their contributions. Much of the editorial time invested in this book was covered by funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n.615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods and neighbourhood effects); from the Estonian Research Council (PUT PRG306, Infotechnological Mobility Laboratory, RITA-Ränne), and from TU Delft where Tiit Tammaru was a visiting professor in 2018

    Socioeconomic segregation in European capital cities. Increasing separation between poor and rich

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    The research leading to this paper has received funding from the Estonian Research Council (Institutional Research Grant IUT no. 2–17 on Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions); European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) /ERC Grant Agreement no. 615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial Inequality, Deprived Neighborhoods, and Neighborhood Effects); and from the Marie Curie programme under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) /Career Integration Grant no. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighborhood Choice, Neighborhood Sorting, and Neighborhood Effects); and direct funding from the Universities of Amsterdam and Lodz.Socioeconomic inequality is on the rise in major European cities, as are concerns over it, since it is seen as a threat to social cohesion and stability. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the spatial dimensions of rising socioeconomic inequality. This paper builds on a study of socioeconomic segregation in 12 European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Madrid, Oslo, Prague, Riga, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vienna, and Vilnius. Data used derive from national censuses and registers for 2001 and 2011. The main conclusion is that socioeconomic segregation has increased. This paper develops a rigorous multifactor approach to understand segregation and links it to four underlying, partially overlapping, structural factors: social inequalities, globalization and economic restructuring, welfare regimes, and housing systems. Taking into account contextual factors resulted in a better understanding of actual segregation levels, while introducing time lags between structural factors and segregation outcomes will likely further improve the theoretical model.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Chapter 1 A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

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    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competive- ness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of rising inequalities. This gap is filled by our book project Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, with empirical evidence from Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Madrid, Milan, Oslo, Prague, Riga, Stockholm, Tallinn, Vienna and Vilnius. This introductory chapter outlines the background to this interna- tional comparative research and introduces a multi-factor approach to studying socio-economic segregation. The chapter focuses on four underlying universal structural factors: social inequalities, global city status, welfare regime and the housing system. Based on these factors, we propose a hypothetical ranking of segregation levels in the thirteen case study cities. As the conclusions of this book show, the hypothetical ranking and the actual ranking of cities by segregation levels only match partly; the explanation for this can be sought in context-specific factors which will be discussed in-depth in each of the case study chapters.Publishe

    Pre-Hire Factors and Workplace Ethnic Segregation

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    In addition to neighbourhoods of residence, family and places of work play important roles in producing and reproducing ethnic segregation. Therefore, recent research on ethnic segregation and contact is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas towards other important domains of daily interethnic contact. The key innovation of this paper is to clarify the role of immigrants' pre-hire exposure to natives in the residence, workplace and family domains in immigrant exposure to natives in their current workplace. The study is based on Swedish population register data. The results show that at the macro level, workplace neighbourhood segregation is lower than residential neighbourhood segregation. Our micro-level analysis further shows that high levels of residential exposure of immigrants to natives help to reduce ethnic segregation at the level of workplace establishments as well.neighbourhood effects, residential segregation, workplace segregation, intermarriage, longitudinal analysis, Sweden
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