263 research outputs found

    Evaluation of subcutaneous proleukin (Interleukin-2) in a randomized international trial (ESPRIT): Geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

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    Background: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells ≥300 cells/μL. Objectives: To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Method: Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. Results: 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/μL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (<500 cp/mL). Conclusion: ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV research. As a consequence, the results of the study may have wide global applicability

    Enhanced normalisation of CD4/CD8 ratio with earlier antiretroviral therapy at Primary HIV Infection.

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    BACKGROUND: Total CD4 T-cell counts predict HIV disease progression, but do not necessarily reflect normalization of immune function. CD4/CD8 ratio is a marker of immune dysfunction, a prognostic indicator for non-AIDS mortality, and reflects viral reservoir size. Despite ART, recovery of CD4/CD8 ratio in chronic HIV infection is incomplete; we hypothesize enhanced CD4/CD8 ratio recovery with earlier treatment initiation in recently infected individuals. METHODS: CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio were analyzed using data from two cohorts: SPARTAC trial, and the UK HIV Seroconverters Cohort where Primary HIV infection (PHI) was defined as within 6 months from estimated date of infection. Using time-to-event methods and Cox proportional hazard models we examined the effect of CD4/CD8 ratio at seroconversion on disease progression (CD41.0). FINDINGS: Of 573 seroconverters, 482 (84%) had abnormal CD4/CD8 ratios at HIV seroconversion. Individuals with higher CD4/CD8 ratio at seroconversion were significantly less likely to reach the disease progression end point (aHR [95% CI] = 0.52 [0.32, 0.82], p=0.005). The longer the interval between seroconversion and ART initiation (HR [95% CI] =0.98 per month increase [0.97, 0.99], p<0.001) the less likely CD4/CD8 ratio normalization. ART initiation within 6 months from seroconversion was significantly more likely to normalize (HR [95% CI] =2.47 [1.67, 3.67], p<0.001) than those initiating later. INTERPRETATION: The majority of individuals presenting in PHI have abnormal CD4/CD8 ratios. The sooner ART is initiated in PHI the greater the probability of achieving normal CD4/CD8 ratio

    Proportion and factors associated with recent HIV infection in a cohort of patients seen for care in Italy over 1996-2014: Data from the ICONA Foundation Study cohort.

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    In Italy the prevalence of recent HIV infection (RHI) isn't currently monitored. Early diagnosis is crucial to allow introduction of antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the recent phase of infection. We aimed to estimate the proportion and the determinants of RHI among patients enrolled in the ICONA cohort; we explored differences in the median time from HIV diagnosis to cART initiation and in the viro-immunological response between RHI and Less Recent HIV infections (NRHI). We included antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive patients enrolled in the cohort with documented dates of HIV-negative and positive antibodies tests, grouped in RHI (estimated date of seroconversion within 12 months of enrolment) and NRHI. Proportion of RHI and the trend of this proportion by calendar period (1996-2014) were investigated (Chi-square test). Logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with RHI. The time from seroconversion to cART initiation was compared in RHI and NRHI overall and after stratification by calendar period (survival analysis). We finally explored the time from starting cART to HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL and to CD4+ gain ≥200 cells/mmc by Cox regression. HIV seroconversion could be estimated for 2608/12,616 patients: 981/2608 (37.6%) were RHI. Proportion of RHI increased in recent calendar periods and was associated with younger age, baseline higher HIV-RNA and CD4+ count. There wasn't difference in the 2-year estimates of cART start between RHI and NRHI, regardless of calendar period. Rates and hazards of virological response were similar in RHI versus NRHI. RHI showed a 1.5-fold higher probability of CD4+ gain, also following adjustment for calendar period and cART regimen, and for age, HCV and smoking; the difference in probability was however attenuated after further controlling for baseline HIV-RNA and CD4+ T-cells. The increased proportion of RHI over time suggests that in recent years in Italy HIV infections are more likely to be detected earlier than before. The similar rates of cART introduction and viro-immunological response in RHI and NRHI probably reflect the efficacy of the modern cART regimens. An improvement of the prevention services is warranted to allow an early cART access, also in the perspective of therapy as prevention

    Flexibility along the Neck of the Neogene Terror Bird Andalgalornis steulleti (Aves Phorusrhacidae)

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    BACKGROUND: Andalgalornis steulleti from the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene (≈6 million years ago) of Argentina is a medium-sized patagornithine phorusrhacid. It was a member of the predominantly South American radiation of 'terror birds' (Phorusrhacidae) that were apex predators throughout much of the Cenozoic. A previous biomechanical study suggests that the skull would be prepared to make sudden movements in the sagittal plane to subdue prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the flexion patterns of the neck of Andalgalornis based on the neck vertebrae morphology and biometrics. The transitional cervical vertebrae 5th and 9th clearly separate regions 1-2 and 2-3 respectively. Bifurcate neural spines are developed in the cervical vertebrae 7th to 12th suggesting the presence of a very intricate ligamentary system and of a very well developed epaxial musculature. The presence of the lig. elasticum interespinale is inferred. High neural spines of R3 suggest that this region concentrates the major stresses during downstrokes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The musculoskeletal system of Andalgalornis seems to be prepared (1) to support a particularly big head during normal stance, and (2) to help the neck (and the head) rising after the maximum ventroflexion during a strike. The study herein is the first interpretation of the potential performance of the neck of Andalgalornis in its entirety and we considered this an important starting point to understand and reconstruct the flexion pattern of other phorusrhacids from which the neck is unknown

    HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control.

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    In HIV-1 infection, a population of latently infected cells facilitates viral persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the aim of identifying individuals in whom ART might induce a period of viraemic control on stopping therapy, we hypothesised that quantification of the pool of latently infected cells in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) would predict clinical progression and viral replication following ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA in a highly characterised randomised population of individuals with PHI. We explored associations between HIV-1 DNA and immunological and virological markers of clinical progression, including viral rebound in those interrupting therapy. In multivariable analyses, HIV-1 DNA was more predictive of disease progression than plasma viral load and, at treatment interruption, predicted time to plasma virus rebound. HIV-1 DNA may help identify individuals who could safely interrupt ART in future HIV-1 eradication trials

    Activating Killer Immunoglobulin Receptors and HLA-C: A successful combination providing HIV-1 control

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    Several studies demonstrated a relevant role of polymorphisms located within the HLA-B and -C loci and the Killer Immunoglobulin Receptors (KIRs) 3DL1 and 3DS1 in controlling HIV-1 replication. KIRs are regulatory receptors expressed at the surface of NK and CD8+ T-cells that specifically bind HLA-A and -B alleles belonging to the Bw4 supratype and all the -C alleles expressing the C1 or C2 supratype. We here disclose a novel signature associated with the Elite Controller but not with the long-term nonprogressor status concerning 2DS activating KIRs and HLA-C2 alleles insensitive to miRNA148a regulation. Overall, our findings support a crucial role of NK cells in the control of HIV-1 viremia