17,665 research outputs found

    Dust and Molecules in Early Galaxies: Prediction and Strategy for Observations

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    The interplay between dust and molecules is of fundamental importance in early galaxy evolution. First we present the prediction for the dust emission from forming galaxies. Then we discuss the observational strategy for molecules in early galaxies by infrared absorption lines of a bright continuum source behind the clouds. By combining these two approaches, we will be able to have a coherent picture of the very early stage of galaxy evolution.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, to appear in the proceedings of `Hunt for Molecules', IA

    Star-galaxy separation by far-infrared color-color diagrams for the AKARI FIS All-Sky Survey (Bright Source Catalogue Version beta-1)

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    To separate stars and galaxies in the far infrared AKARI All-Sky Survey data, we have selected a sample with the complete color information available in the low extinction regions of the sky and constructed color-color plots for these data. We looked for the method to separate stars and galaxies using the color information. We performed an extensive search for the counterparts of these selected All-Sky Survey sources in the NED and SIMBAD databases. Among 5176 objects, we found 4272 galaxies, 382 other extragalactic objects, 349 Milky Way stars, 50 other Galactic objects, and 101 sources detected before in various wavelengths but of an unknown origin. 22 sources were left unidentified. Then, we checked colors of stars and galaxies in the far-infrared flux-color and color-color plots. In the resulting diagrams, stars form two clearly separated clouds. One of them is easy to be distinguished from galaxies and allows for a simple method of excluding a large part of stars using the far-infrared data. The other smaller branch, overplotting galaxies, consists of stars known to have an infrared excess, like Vega and some fainter stars discovered by IRAS or 2MASS. The color properties of these objects in any case make them very difficult to distinguish from galaxies. We conclude that the FIR color-color diagrams allow for a high-quality star-galaxy separation. With the proposed simple method we can select more that 95 % of galaxies rejecting at least 80 % of stars.Comment: 20 pages, 41 figures, "Astronomy & Astrophysics", accepted, to appear in the AKARI special issu

    Mid-infrared luminosity as an indicator of the total infrared luminosity of galaxies

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    The infrared (IR) emission plays a crucial role for understanding the star formation in galaxies hidden by dust. We first examined four estimators of the IR luminosity of galaxies, L_fir (Helou et al. 1988), L_tir (Dale et al. 2001), revised version of L_tir (Dale & Helou 2002) (we denote L_tir2), and L_ir (Sanders & Mirabel 1996) by using the observed SEDs of well-known galaxies. We found that L_ir provides excellent estimates of the total IR luminosity for a variety of galaxy SEDs. The performance of L_tir2 was also found to be very good. Using L_ir, we then statistically analyzed the IRAS PSCz galaxy sample (Saunders et al. 2000) and found useful formulae relating the MIR monochromatic luminosities [L(12um) and L(25um)], and L_ir. For this purpose we constructed a subsample of 1420 galaxies with all IRAS four band (12, 25, 60, and 100um) flux densities. We found linear relations between L_ir and MIR luminosities, L(12um) and L(25um). The prediction error with 95-% confidence level is a factor of 4-5. Hence, these formulae are useful for the estimation of the total IR luminosity only from 12um or 25um observations. We further tried to make an `interpolation' formula for galaxies at 0<z<1. For this purpose we construct the formula of the relation between 15-um luminosity and the total IR luminosity. We conclude that the 15-um formula can be used as an estimator of the total IR luminosity from 24um observation of galaxies at z \simeq 0.6.Comment: A&A in press, 8 pages, 9 figures, numerical errors correcte

    Clustering of Far-Infrared Galaxies in the AKARI All-Sky Survey

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    We present the first measurement of the angular two-point correlation function for AKARI 90-őľ\mum point sources, detected outside of the Milky Way plane and other regions characterized by high Galactic extinction, and categorized as extragalactic sources according to our far-infrared-color based criterion (Pollo et al. 2010). This is the first measurement of the large-scale angular clustering of galaxies selected in the far-infrared after IRAS measurements. Although a full description of clustering properties of these galaxies will be obtained by more detailed studies, using either spatial correlation function, or better information about properties and at least photometric redshifts of these galaxies, the angular correlation function remains the first diagnostics to establish the clustering properties of the catalog and observed galaxy population. We find a non-zero clustering signal in both hemispheres extending up to ‚ąľ40\sim 40 degrees, without any significant fluctuations at larger scales. The observed correlation function is well fitted by a power law function. The notable differences between a northern and southern hemisphere are found, which can be probably attributed to the photometry problems and point out to a necessity of performing a better calibration in the data from southern hemisphere.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in Earth, Planets, and Spac

    The Evolution of the Visible and Hidden Star Formation in the Universe: Implication from the Luminosity Functions at FUV and FIR

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    Based on GALEX and IRAS/Spitzer datasets, we have found that both FUV and FIR luminosity functions (LFs) show a strong evolution from z=0 to z=1, but the FIR LF evolves much stronger than the FUV one. Consequently, the FIR/FUV luminosity density ratio increases from 4 (z=0) to 15 (z=1). It means that more than 80% of the star-forming activity in the Universe is hidden by dust at z=1. To explore this issue further, we have performed a combined analysis of the galaxy sample in FUV and FIR. For the Local Universe we used GALEX-IRAS sample, whereas at z=1 we used the Lyman-break galaxy sample selected by GALEX bands constructed by Burgarella et al. (2005), which is known to be representative of visible (i.e., non-obscured) star-forming galaxies at z=1. From these datasets, we constructed the LFs of the FUV-selected galaxies by the survival analysis to, take into account the upper-limit data properly. We discovered that the FIR LF of the Lyman-break galaxies show a significant evolution comparing with the local FIR LF, but it is a factor of 2-3 lower than the global FIR LF (Le Floc'h et al. 2005). This indicates that the evolution of visible galaxies is not strong enough to explain the drastic evolution of the FIR LF. Namely, a FIR-luminous, rapidly diminishing population of galaxies is required.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, conference proceedings of "At the Edge of the Universe", Sintra 9-13 October 200

    Social and Cultural Contexts of Alcohol Use: Influences in a Social-Ecological Framework.

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    Alcohol use and misuse account for 3.3 million deaths every year, or 6 percent of all deaths worldwide. The harmful effects of alcohol misuse are far reaching and range from individual health risks, morbidity, and mortality to consequences for family, friends, and the larger society. This article reviews a few of the cultural and social influences on alcohol use and places individual alcohol use within the contexts and environments where people live and interact. It includes a discussion of macrolevel factors, such as advertising and marketing, immigration and discrimination factors, and how neighborhoods, families, and peers influence alcohol use. Specifically, the article describes how social and cultural contexts influence alcohol use/misuse and then explores future directions for alcohol research

    Virtual audio reproduced in a headrest

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    When virtual audio reproduction is simultaneously required in many seats, such as in aircraft or cinemas, it may be convenient to use loudspeakers mounted inside each seat's headrest. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of virtual audio reproduction in the headrest of a single seat is explored using an inversion technique to compensate for crosstalk and the synthesis of head related transfer functions. Although large changes in the magnitude of the signals reproduced at the listener's ears are observed as the listener moves their head within the headrest, informal listening tests indicate that the reproduced acoustic images are surprisingly stable in about an eighth of an arc either side of the loudspeaker positions. Not surprisingly, frontal images are more difficult to reproduce with headrest loudspeakers
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