18 research outputs found

    The impact of policies to control motor vehicle emissions in Mumbai, India

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    This paper examines the impact of measures to reduce emissions from passenger transport, specifically buses, cars, and two-wheelers in Mumbai. These include converting diesel buses to compressed natural gas (CNG), as the Indian Supreme Court required in Delhi, which would necessitate an increase in bus fares to cover the cost of pollution controls. The authors model an increase in the price of gasoline, which should affect the ownership and use of cars and two-wheelers, as well as imposing a license fee on cars to retard growth in car ownership. The impact of each policy on emissions depends not only on how the policy affects the mode that is regulated, but on shifts to other modes. The results suggest that the most effective policy to reduce emissions from passenger vehicles-in terms of the total number of tons of PM10 (particulate matter that measure less than or equal to 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter) reduced-is to convert diesel buses to CNG. The conversion of 3,391 diesel buses to CNG would result in an emissions reduction of 663 tons of PM10 a year, 14 percent of total emissions from transport. The bus conversion program passes the cost-benefit test. In contrast, the results suggest the elasticities of emissions from transport with respect to a gasoline tax and a tax on vehicle ownership are -0.04 and -0.10 respectively. As a consequence, it would take substantial increases in the gasoline tax or vehicle ownership tax to produce reductions in emissions similar to the bus conversion program. These results, however, reflect the low shares of cars and two-wheelers in the Mumbai emissions inventory and need not apply to cities, such as Delhi, where these shares are higher.Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Transport in Urban Areas,Transport and Environment,Roads&Highways,Urban Transport

    The welfare effects of slum improvement programs : the case of Mumbai

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    The authors compare the welfare effects of in situ slum upgrading programs with programs that provide slum dwellers with better housing in a new location. Evaluating the welfare effects of slum upgrading and resettlement programs requires estimating models of residential location choice, in which households trade off commuting costs against the cost and attributes of the housing they consume, including neighborhood attributes. The authors accomplish this using data for 5,000 households in Mumbai, a city in which 40 percent of the population live in slums. The precise welfare effects of resettlement programs depend on assumptions made about the ease with which workers can change jobs and also on the ethnic characteristics of neighborhoods in which new housing is located. To illustrate this point the authors consider a realistic slum upgrading program that could be offered to residents in their sample living in east Mumbai. They summarize the effects of job opportunities and neighborhood composition on welfare by mapping how compensating variation for the program changes depending on where in Mumbai improved housing is located. If program beneficiaries continue working in their original job, the set of welfare-enhancing locations for the upgrading program is small. The set increases greatly if it is assumed that workers can change jobs. The benefits of this program are contrasted with the benefits of in situ housing improvements.Housing&Human Habitats,Urban Slums Upgrading,Urban Services to the Poor,Urban Housing,Municipal Housing and Land

    Urban poverty and transport : the case of Mumbai

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    This paper reports the results of a survey of 5,000 households in the Greater Mumbai Region conducted in the winter of 2004. The goal of the survey was to better understand the demand for transport services by the poor, the factors affecting this demand, and the inter-linkages between transport decisions and other vital decisions such as where to live and work. This paper, the first of several research outputs, describes the salient facts about travel patterns in Mumbai for both poor and non-poor households. A striking finding of the survey is the extent to which all households-especially poor households-rely on walking. Overall, 44 percent of commuters in Mumbai walk to work. The proportion of the poor who walk to work is even higher-63 percent. Walking is an even higher modal share for nonwork than for work trips. A second finding is that public transit remains an important factor in the mobility of the poor, and especially in the mobility of the middle class. Overall, rail remains the main mode to work for 23 percent of commuters, while bus remains the main mode for 16 percent of commuters. The modal shares for bus are highest for the poor in zones 1-3 (21 percent of the poor in zone 2 take the bus to work), while rail shares are highest for the poor in the suburbs (25 percent of the poor in zone 6 take rail to work). Isthe cost and lack of accessibility to transit a barrier to the mobility of the poor? Does it keep them from obtaining better housing and better jobs? This is a difficult question to answer without further analysis of the survey data. But it appears that transport is less of a barrier to the poor who live in central Mumbai (zones 1-3) than it is to the poor who live in the suburbs (zones 4-6). The poor who live in zones 1-3 (central Mumbai) live closer to the non-poor than do poor households in the suburbs. They also live closer to higher-paying jobs for unskilled workers. Workers in these households, on average, commute short distances (less than 3 kilometers), although a non-negligible fraction of them (one-third in zone 2) take public transit to work. It is true that the cost of housing for the poor is higher in central Mumbai than in the suburbs, but the quality of slum housing is at least as good in central Mumbai as in the suburbs. The poor who live in the suburbs of Mumbai, especially in zones 5 and 6, are more isolated from the rich than the poor in central Mumbai: 37 percent of the poor live in zones 5 and 6, whereas only one-fifth of higher income groups do. Wages for skilled and unskilled labor are generally lower in zones 5 and 6 than in the central city, and it appears that unemployment rates for poor males are also higher in these zones. The lower cost of slum and chawl housing in zones 5 and 6 may partly compensate for lower wages. However, a larger proportion of workers in poor households leave zones 5 and 6 to work than is true for poor workers in other zones. Commuting distances are much higher for poor workers in the suburbs than for poor workers in zones 1-3.Roads&Highways,Safety Nets and Transfers,Rural Poverty Reduction,Services&Transfers to Poor,Poverty Assessment

    Intravenous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation in aged mice increases transcription of glucose transporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase at hippocampus followed by restored neurological functions

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    We recently reported that intravenous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) transplantation in stroke improves neurological function through improvement of cerebral metabolism. Cerebral metabolism is known to diminish with aging, and the reduction of metabolism is one of the presumed causes of neurological decline in the elderly. We report herein that transcription of glucose transporters, monocarboxylate transporters, and Na+/K+-ATPase is downregulated in the hippocampus of aged mice with impaired neurological functions. Intravenous BM-MNC transplantation in aged mice stimulated the transcription of glucose transporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase α1 followed by restoration of neurological function. As glucose transporters and Na+/K+-ATPases are closely related to cerebral metabolism and neurological function, our data indicate that BM-MNC transplantation in aged mice has the potential to restore neurological function by activating transcription of glucose transporter and Na+/K+-ATPase. Furthermore, our data indicate that changes in transcription of glucose transporter and Na+/K+-ATPase could be surrogate biomarkers for age-related neurological impairment as well as quantifying the efficacy of therapies

    Gap junction-mediated cell-cell interaction between transplanted mesenchymal stem cells and vascular endothelium in stroke

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    We have shown previously that transplanted bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM‐MNC), which are a cell fraction rich in hematopoietic stem cells, can activate cerebral endothelial cells via gap junction‐mediated cell‐cell interaction. In the present study, we investigated such cell‐cell interaction between mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and cerebral endothelial cells. In contrast to BM‐MNC, for MSC we observed suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor uptake into endothelial cells and transfer of glucose from endothelial cells to MSC in vitro. The transfer of such a small molecule from MSC to vascular endothelium was subsequently confirmed in vivo and was followed by suppressed activation of macrophage/microglia in stroke mice. The suppressive effect was absent by blockade of gap junction at MSC. Furthermore, gap junction‐mediated cell‐cell interaction was observed between circulating white blood cells and MSC. Our findings indicate that gap junction‐mediated cell‐cell interaction is one of the major pathways for MSC‐mediated suppression of inflammation in the brain following stroke and provides a novel strategy to maintain the blood‐brain barrier in injured brain. Furthermore, our current results have the potential to provide a novel insight for other ongoing clinical trials that make use of MSC transplantation aiming to suppress excess inflammation, as well as other diseases such as COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease 2019)

    Increased RNA transcription of energy source transporters in circulating white blood cells of aged mice

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    Circulating white blood cells (WBC) contribute toward maintenance of cerebral metabolism and brain function. Recently, we showed that during aging, transcription of metabolism related genes, including energy source transports, in the brain significantly decreased at the hippocampus resulting in impaired neurological functions. In this article, we investigated the changes in RNA transcription of metabolism related genes (glucose transporter 1 [Glut1], Glut3, monocarboxylate transporter 4 [MCT4], hypoxia inducible factor 1-α [Hif1-α], prolyl hydroxylase 3 [PHD3] and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 [PDK1]) in circulating WBC and correlated these with brain function in mice. Contrary to our expectations, most of these metabolism related genes in circulating WBC significantly increased in aged mice, and correlation between their increased RNA transcription and impaired neurological functions was observed. Bone marrow mononuclear transplantation into aged mice decreased metabolism related genes in WBC with accelerated neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In vitro analysis revealed that cell-cell interaction between WBC and endothelial cells via gap junction is impaired with aging, and blockade of the interaction increased their transcription in WBC. Our findings indicate that gross analysis of RNA transcription of metabolism related genes in circulating WBC has the potential to provide significant information relating to impaired cell-cell interaction between WBC and endothelial cells of aged mice. Additionally, this can serve as a tool to evaluate the change of the cell-cell interaction caused by various treatments or diseases

    The Welfare Effects of Slum Improvement Programs: The Case of Mumbai

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    The authors compare the welfare effects of in situ slum upgrading programs with programs that provide slum dwellers with better housing in a new location. Evaluating the welfare effects of slum upgrading and resettlement programs requires estimating models of residential location choice, in which households trade off commuting costs against the cost and attributes of the housing they consume, including neighborhood attributes. The authors accomplish this using data for 5,000 households in Mumbai, a city in which 40 percent of the population live in slums. The precise welfare effects of resettlement programs depend on assumptions made about the ease with which workers can change jobs and also on the ethnic characteristics of neighborhoods in which new housing is located. To illustrate this point the authors consider a realistic slum upgrading program that could be offered to residents in their sample living in east Mumbai. They summarize the effects of job opportunities and neighborhood composition on welfare by mapping how compensating variation for the program changes depending on where in Mumbai improved housing is located. If program beneficiaries continue working in their original job, the set of welfare-enhancing locations for the upgrading program is small. The set increases greatly if it is assumed that workers can change jobs. The benefits of this program are contrasted with the benefits of in situ housing improvements

    Measuring the Welfare Effects of Slum Improvement Programs: The Case of Mumbai

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    WP 2007-18 October 2007This paper evaluates the welfare effects of in-situ slum upgrading and relocation programs using data for 5,000 households in Mumbai, India. We estimate a model of residential location choice in which households value the ethnic composition of neighborhoods and employment accessibility in addition to housing characteristics. The importance of neighborhood composition and employment access implies that relocation programs must be designed carefully if they are to be welfare-enhancing. The value of our model is that it allows us to determine the magnitude of these effects. It also allows us to determine the value households place on in situ improvements, which policymakers need to know if they are to design housing programs that permit cost recovery.We thank the World Bank Research Committee and Transport Anchor (TUDTR) for funding the study

    Measuring the Welfare Effects of Slum Improvement Programs: The Case of Mumbai

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    This paper evaluates the welfare effects of in-situ slum upgrading and relocation programs using data for 5,000 households in Mumbai, India. We estimate a model of residential location choice in which households value the ethnic composition of neighborhoods and employment accessibility in addition to housing characteristics. The importance of neighborhood composition and employment access implies that relocation programs must be designed carefully if they are to be welfare-enhancing. The value of our model is that it allows us to determine the magnitude of these effects. It also allows us to determine the value households place on in situ improvements, which policymakers need to know if they are to design housing programs that permit cost recovery
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