1,391 research outputs found

    Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes

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    Entangled photon-pair sources based on spontaneous parametric processes are widely used in photonic quantum information experiments. In this paper, we clarify the relationship between average photon-pair number and the visibility of two-photon interference (TPI) using those entanglement sources. We consider sources that generate distinguishable and indistinguishable entangled photon pairs, assuming coincidence measurements that use threshold detectors. We present formulas for the TPI visibility of a polarization entanglement that take account of all the high-order multi-pair emission events. Moreover, we show that the formulas can be approximated with simple functions of the average pair number when the photon collection efficiency is small. As a result, we reveal that an indistinguishable entangled pair provides better visibility than a distinguishable one

    Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on the network with punishment and opportunistic partner switching

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    Punishment and partner switching are two well-studied mechanisms that support the evolution of cooperation. Observation of human behaviour suggests that the extent to which punishment is adopted depends on the usage of alternative mechanisms, including partner switching. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of punishment and partner switching in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games conducted on a network. In the model, agents are located on the network and participate in the prisoner's dilemma games with punishment. In addition, they can opportunistically switch interaction partners to improve their payoff. Our Monte Carlo simulation showed that a large frequency of punishers is required to suppress defectors when the frequency of partner switching is low. In contrast, cooperation is the most abundant strategy when the frequency of partner switching is high regardless of the strength of punishment. Interestingly, cooperators become abundant not because they avoid the cost of inflicting punishment and earn a larger average payoff per game but rather because they have more numerous opportunities to be referred as a role agent by defectors. Our results imply that the fluidity of social relationships has a profound effect on the adopted strategy in maintaining cooperation.Comment: 10 pages, 1 table, 8 figures; Figs 6 and 7 are appended to reflect reviewers' suggestions. Accepted for publication in EPL (Europhysics Letters

    ADHM Construction of (Anti-)Self-dual Instantons in 4n4n Dimensions

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    The ADHM construction is a very strong scheme to construct the instantons in four dimensions. We study an ADHM construction of instantons in 4n (n2)4n~(n\geq2) dimensions by generalizing this scheme. The higher-dimensional ADHM construction generates the 4n4n-dimensional (anti-)self-dual instantons which satisfy the (anti-)self-dual equation in 4n4n dimensions: F(n)=±4nF(n)F(n)=\pm\ast_{4n}F(n). Here F(n)F(n) is the nnth wedge products of the gauge field strength 2-form FF. We also show that our scheme reproduces the known 4n4n-dimensional one-instantons and there are multi-instanton solutions of the 't Hooft type in the dilute instanton gas limit. Moreover we discuss a Harrington-Shepard type caloron in 4n4n dimensions and this monopole limit.Comment: 23 pages, published versio

    Long-distance distribution of time-bin entanglement generated in a cooled fiber

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    This paper reports the first demonstration of the generation and distribution of entangled photon pairs in the 1.5-um band using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cooled fiber. Noise photons induced by spontaneous Raman scattering were suppressed by cooling a dispersion shifted fiber with liquid nitrogen, which resulted in a significant improvement in the visibility of two-photon interference. By using this scheme, time-bin entangled qubits were successfully distributed over 60 km of optical fiber with a visibility of 76%, which was obtained without removing accidental coincidences.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Roles of mutation rate and co-existence of multiple strategy updating rules in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games

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    The emergence and maintenance of cooperation has attracted intensive scholarly interest and has been analysed within the framework of evolutionary game theory. The role of innovation, which introduces novel strategies into the population, is a relatively understudied aspect of evolutionary game theory. Here, we investigate the effects of two sources of innovation---mutation and heterogeneous updating rules. These mechanisms allow agents to adopt strategies that do not rely on the imitation of other individuals. The model introduces---in addition to canonical imitation-based strategy updating---aspiration-based updating, whereby agents switch their strategy by referring solely to the performance of their own strategy; mutation also introduces novel strategies into the population. Our simulation results show that the introduction of aspiration-based rules into a population of imitators leads to the deterioration of cooperation. In addition, mutation, in combination with heterogeneous updating rules, also diminishes cooperators. This phenomenon is prominent when a large proportion of the population consists of imitators rather than adopters of aspiration-based updating. Nevertheless, a high mutation rate, in combination with a low aspiration level, has positive nonlinear effects, and a heterogeneous population achieves a higher level of cooperation than the weighted average of homogeneous populations. Our results demonstrate the profound role of innovation in the evolution of cooperation.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figures, Figs 3(b) and 8 were added following the reviewers' comment

    Two extensions of exact non-equilibrium steady states of a boundary driven cellular automaton

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    Recently Prosen and Mej\'ia-Monasterio (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 49 (2016) 185003) obtained exact nonequilibrium steady states of an integrable and reversible cellular automaton driven by some stochastic boundary conditions. In this paper, we explore the possible extensions of their method by generalizing the boundary conditions. As the result, we find two cases where such an extension is possible. One is the case where a special condition is satisfied in a generalized boundary condition. The other is obtained by considering a conserved quantity as energy and boundaries as heat reservoirs. The latter includes the original solution as the special case. Properties of the both solutions are discussed.Comment: 27 pages, 13 figure

    Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers

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    This paper reports 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement generation. We employed a spontaneous four-wave mixing process in a dispersion shifted fiber, with which correlated photon pairs with very narrow bandwidths were generated efficiently. To observe two-photon interference, we used planar lightwave circuit based interferometers that were operated stably without feedback control. As a result, we obtained coincidence fringes with 99 % visibilities after subtracting accidental coincidences, and successfully distributed entangled photons over 20-km standard single-mode fiber without any deterioration in the quantum correlation.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure