619 research outputs found

    HH 114 MMS: a new chemically active outflow

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    Context. A small group of bipolar protostellar outflows display strong emission from shock-tracer molecules such as SiO and CH3OH, and are generally referred to as "chemically active." The best-studied outflow from this group is the one in L 1157. Aims. We study the molecular emission from the bipolar outflow powered by the very young stellar object HH 114 MMS and compare its chemical composition with that of the L1157 outflow. Methods. We have used the IRAM 30m radio telescope to observe a number of transitions from CO, SiO, CH3OH, SO, CS, HCN, and HCO+ toward the HH 114 MMS outflow. The observations consist of maps and a two-position molecular survey. Results. The HH 114 MMS outflow presents strong emission from a number of shock-tracer molecules that dominate the appearance of the maps around the central source. The abundance of these molecules is comparable to the abundance in L 1157. Conclusions. The outflow from HH 114 MMS is a spectacular new case of a chemically active outflow.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Detection of interstellar HCS and its metastable isomer HSC: new pieces in the puzzle of sulfur chemistry

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    We present the first identification in interstellar space of the thioformyl radical (HCS) and its metastable isomer HSC. These species were detected toward the molecular cloud L483 thanks to observations carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope in the 3 mm band. We derive beam-averaged column densities of 7e12 cm-2 for HCS and 1.8e11 cm-2 for HSC, which translate to fractional abundances relative to H2 of 2e-10 and 6e-12, respectively. Although the amount of sulfur locked by these radicals is low, their detection allows to put interesting constraints on the chemistry of sulfur in dark clouds. Interestingly, the H2CS/HCS abundance ratio is found to be quite low, around 1, in contrast with the oxygen analogue case, in which the H2CO/HCO abundance ratio is around 10 in dark clouds. Moreover, the radical HCS is found to be more abundant than its oxygen analogue, HCO. The metastable species HOC, the oxygen analogue of HSC, has not been yet observed in space. These observational constraints are confronted with the outcome of a recent model of the chemistry of sulfur in dark clouds. The model underestimates the fractional abundance of HCS by at least one order of magnitude, overestimates the H2CS/HCS abundance ratio, and does not provide an abundance prediction for the metastable isomer HSC. These observations should prompt a revision of the chemistry of sulfur in interstellar clouds.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A Letter

    Fibers in the NGC1333 proto-cluster

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    Are the initial conditions for clustered star formation the same as for non-clustered star formation? To investigate the initial gas properties in young proto-clusters we carried out a comprehensive and high-sensitivity study of the internal structure, density, temperature, and kinematics of the dense gas content of the NGC1333 region in Perseus, one of the nearest and best studied embedded clusters. The analysis of the gas velocities in the Position-Position-Velocity space reveals an intricate underlying gas organization both in space and velocity. We identified a total of 14 velocity-coherent, (tran-)sonic structures within NGC1333, with similar physical and kinematic properties than those quiescent, star-forming (aka fertile) fibers previously identified in low-mass star-forming clouds. These fibers are arranged in a complex spatial network, build-up the observed total column density, and contain the dense cores and protostars in this cloud. Our results demonstrate that the presence of fibers is not restricted to low-mass clouds but can be extended to regions of increasing mass and complexity. We propose that the observational dichotomy between clustered and non-clustered star-forming regions might be naturally explained by the distinct spatial density of fertile fibers in these environments.Comment: 25 pages, 17 figures; Accepted for publication in A&

    Chemical modeling of the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores: CO and HCO+ depletion

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    Prestellar cores exhibit a strong chemical differentiation, which is mainly caused by the freeze-out of molecules onto the grain surfaces. Understanding this chemical structure is important, because molecular lines are often used as probes to constrain the core physical properties. Here we present new observations and analysis of the C18O (1-0) and H13CO+ (1-0) line emission in the L1498 and L1517B prestellar cores, located in the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex. We model these observations with a detailed chemistry network coupled to a radiative transfer code. Our model successfully reproduces the observed C18O (1-0) emission for a chemical age of a few 10^5 years. On the other hand, the observed H13CO+ (1-0) is reproduced only if cosmic-ray desorption by secondary photons is included, and if the grains have grown to a bigger size than average ISM grains in the core interior. This grain growth is consistent with the infrared scattered light ("coreshine") detected in these two objects, and is found to increase the CO abundance in the core interior by about a factor four. According to our model, CO is depleted by about 2-3 orders of magnitude in the core center.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Gravitational collapse of the OMC-1 region

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    We have investigated the global dynamical state of the Integral Shaped Filament in the Orion A cloud using new N2_2H+^+ (1-0) large-scale, IRAM30m observations. Our analysis of its internal gas dynamics reveals the presence of accelerated motions towards the Orion Nebula Cluster, showing a characteristic blue-shifted profile centred at the position of the OMC-1 South region. The properties of these observed gas motions (profile, extension, and magnitude) are consistent with the expected accelerations for the gravitational collapse of the OMC-1 region and explain both the physical and kinematic structure of this cloud.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures; Accepted by A&

    Star formation in the vicinity of the IC 348 cluster

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    Aims. We present molecular line observations of the southwestern part of the IC 348 young cluster, and we use them together with NIR and mm continuum data to determine the distribution of dense gas, search for molecular outflows, and analyze the ongoing star formation activity in the region. Methods. Our molecular line data consists of C18O(1--0) and N2H+(1--0) maps obtained with the FCRAO telescope at a resolution of about 50'' and CO(2--1) data obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope at a resolution of 11''. Results. The dense gas southwest of IC 348 is concentrated in two groups of dense cores, each of them with a few solar masses of material and indications of CO depletion at high density. One of the core groups is actively forming stars, while the other seems starless. There is evidence for at least three bipolar molecular outflows in the region, two of them powered by previously identified Class 0 sources, while the other one is powered by a still not well characterized low-luminosity object. The ongoing star formation activity is producing a small stellar subgroup in the cluster. Using the observed core characteristics and the star formation rate in the cluster we propose that that similar episodes of stellar birth may have produced the subclustering observed in the halo of IC 348.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, A&A accepte

    Observations of pre-stellar cores

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    Our understanding of the physical and chemical structure of pre-stellar cores, the simplest star-forming sites, has significantly improved since the last IAU Symposium on Astrochemistry (South Korea, 1999). Research done over these years has revealed that major molecular species like CO and CS systematically deplete onto dust grains at the interior of pre-stellar cores, while species like N2H+ and NH3 survive in the gas phase and can usually be detected towards the core centers. Such a selective behaviour of molecular species gives rise to a differentiated (onion-like) chemical composition, and manifests itself in molecular maps as a dichotomy between centrally peaked and ring-shaped distributions. From the point of view of star-formation studies, the identification of molecular inhomogeneities in cores helps to resolve past discrepancies between observations made using different tracers, and brings the possibility of self-consistent modelling of the core internal structure. Here I present recent work on determining the physical and chemical structure of two pre-stellar cores, L1498 and L1517B, using observations in a large number of molecules and Monte Carlo radiative transfer analysis. These two cores are typical examples of the pre-stellar core population, and their chemical composition is characterized by the presence of large freeze out holes in most molecular species. In contrast with these chemically processed objects, a new population of chemically young cores has started to emerge. The characteristics of its most extreme representative, L1521E, are briefly reviewed.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures. To appear in IAU 231 conf. proc. "Astrochemistry: Recent Successes and Current Challenges," eds. D.C. Lis, G.A. Blake, and E. Herbs

    Chains of dense cores in the Taurus L1495/B213 complex

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    (Abridged) We study the kinematics of the dense gas in the Taurus L1495/B213 filamentary region to investigate the mechanism of core formation. We use observations of N2H+(1-0) and C18O(2-1) carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope. We find that the dense cores in L1495/B213 are significantly clustered in linear chain-like groups about 0.5pc long. The internal motions in these chains are mostly subsonic and the velocity is continuous, indicating that turbulence dissipation in the cloud has occurred at the scale of the chains and not at the smaller scale of the individual cores. The chains also present an approximately constant abundance of N2H+ and radial intensity profiles that can be modeled with a density law that follows a softened power law. A simple analysis of the spacing between the cores using an isothermal cylinder model indicates that the cores have likely formed by gravitational fragmentation of velocity-coherent filaments. Combining our analysis of the cores with our previous study of the large-scale C18O emission from the cloud, we propose a two-step scenario of core formation in L1495/B213. In this scenario, named "fray and fragment," L1495/B213 originated from the supersonic collision of two flows. The collision produced a network of intertwined subsonic filaments or fibers ("fray" step). Some of these fibers accumulated enough mass to become gravitationally unstable and fragment into chains of closely-spaced cores. This scenario may also apply to other regions of star formation.Comment: 17 pages, 12 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    The Musca cloud: A 6 pc-long velocity-coherent, sonic filament

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    Filaments play a central role in the molecular clouds' evolution, but their internal dynamical properties remain poorly characterized. To further explore the physical state of these structures, we have investigated the kinematic properties of the Musca cloud. We have sampled the main axis of this filamentary cloud in 13^{13}CO and C18^{18}O (2--1) lines using APEX observations. The different line profiles in Musca shows that this cloud presents a continuous and quiescent velocity field along its ∼\sim6.5 pc of length. With an internal gas kinematics dominated by thermal motions (i.e., σNT/cs≲1\sigma_{NT}/c_s\lesssim1) and large-scale velocity gradients, these results reveal Musca as the longest velocity-coherent, sonic-like object identified so far in the ISM. The transonic properties of Musca present a clear departure from the predicted supersonic velocity dispersions expected in the Larson's velocity dispersion-size relationship, and constitute the first observational evidence of a filament fully decoupled from the turbulent regime over multi-parsec scales.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures; Accepted for publication in A&
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