48 research outputs found

    Linear Inequality Measures and the Redistribution of Income

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    A class of inequality measures that is a natural companion to the popular Lorenz curve is the class of measures that are linear in incomes. These measures, which include the Gini and S-Gini coefficients, can be interpreted as ethical means of relative deprivation feelings. Their change through the tax and benefit system can be decomposed simply as a sum of progressivity indices for individual taxes and benefits, minus an index of horizontal inequity measured by the extent of reranking in the population. These progressivity and horizontal inequity indices can also be interpreted as ethical means of perceptions of fiscal harshness and ill-performance. We furthermore derive the asymptotic sampling distribution of these classes of indices of redistribution, progressivity, and horizontal inequity, which enables their use with micro-data on a population. We illustrate the theoretical and statistical results through an application on the distribution and redistribution of income in Canada in 1981 and in 1990.

    Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada

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    L’utilitĂ© des courbes de Lorenz pour l’analyse de la rĂ©partition des revenus est bien connue depuis l’article influent d’Atkinson (1970). Nous indiquons dans le prĂ©sent article comment l’usage combinĂ© de ces courbes de Lorenz et des courbes de concentration des revenus, des impĂŽts ou des transferts permet de rĂ©sumer facilement et intuitivement l’impact de l’État sur la distribution des revenus. Nous nous intĂ©ressons plus particuliĂšrement Ă  la redistribution des revenus ainsi qu’à l’équitĂ© verticale et l’iniquitĂ© horizontale exercĂ©es par l’impĂŽt direct et les politiques de transferts. En appliquant des poids « éthiques » Ă  la distance entre les courbes de Lorenz et de concentration, l’on obtient des indices synthĂ©tiques d’inĂ©galitĂ©, de redistribution et d’équitĂ© qui peuvent ĂȘtre facilement dĂ©composĂ©s en contributions individuelles des diffĂ©rents types d’impĂŽts et de transferts. Ces indices reprĂ©sentent une gĂ©nĂ©ralisation et une extension de l’indice d’inĂ©galitĂ© bien connu de Gini. Cette approche est illustrĂ©e Ă  l’aide de la distribution et de la redistribution des revenus au Canada au cours de la derniĂšre dĂ©cennie. On confirme le rĂ©sultat bien connu que l’inĂ©galitĂ© des revenus bruts s’est accrue de 1981 Ă  1990 alors qu’elle a chutĂ© pour le revenu net. La redistribution opĂ©rĂ©e par le systĂšme fiscal s’est considĂ©rablement accrue au cours de cette dĂ©cennie, au prix entre autres choses d’une plus grande iniquitĂ© horizontale. Le groupe de transferts reliĂ©s Ă  la retraite et Ă  la vieillesse est celui qui exerce de loin le plus d’impact sur la redistribution des revenus. L’impact redistributif de l’impĂŽt direct est quant Ă  lui trĂšs sensible au paramĂštre de subjectivitĂ© Ă©thique utilisĂ©.The usefulness of Lorenz curves for analysing the distribution of income is well understood since the influential article of Atkinson (1970). We show in this paper how combining Lorenz and concentration curves for incomes, taxes and transfers allows one to summarise easily and intuitively the impact of government on the distribution of income. We more particularly look at income redistribution and at the vertical and horizontal equity exerted by direct taxes and transfers. By applying "ethical weights" to the distance between the Lorenz and the concentration curves, we obtain summary indices of inequality, redistribution and equity that are easily decomposed additively into separate tax and benefit components. These indices are a generalisation of the well-known Gini index of inequality. The approach is illustrated using micro data on the distribution and the redistribution of income in Canada in the last decade. It confirms the well-known result that the inequality of gross income increased between 1981 and 1990, whereas the inequality of net income fell during the same period. The redistribution exerted by the tax and transfer system increased considerably during that period, at the cost of a higher level of horizontal inequity. Income redistribution is largely generated by the group of transfers related to retirement and old age. As for the redistributive impact of direct taxes, it is quite sensitive to the value of the ethical parameter used in computing the summary indices of equity and redistribution

    Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada

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    The usefulness of Lorenz curves for analysing the distribution of income is well understood since the influential article of Atkinson (1970). We show in this paper how combining Lorenz and concentration curves for incomes, taxes and transfers allows one to summarise easily and intuitively the impact of government on the distribution of income. We more particularly look at income redistribution and at the vertical and horizontal equity exerted by direct taxes and transfers. By applying "ethical weights" to the distance between the Lorenz and the concentration curves, we obtain summary indices of inequality, redistribution and equity that are easily decomposed additively into separate tax and benefit components. These indices are a generalisation of the well-known Gini index of inequality. The approach is illustrated using micro data on the distribution and the redistribution of income in Canada in the last decade. It confirms the well-known result that the inequality of gross income increased between 1981 and 1990, whereas the inequality of net income fell during the same period. The redistribution exerted by the tax and transfer system increased considerably during that period, at the cost of a higher level of horizontal inequity. Income redistribution is largely generated by the group of transfers related to retirement and old age. As for the redistributive impact of direct taxes, it is quite sensitive to the value of the ethical parameter used in computing the summary indices of equity and redistribution. L’utilitĂ© des courbes de Lorenz pour l’analyse de la rĂ©partition des revenus est bien connue depuis l’article influent d’Atkinson (1970). Nous indiquons dans le prĂ©sent article comment l’usage combinĂ© de ces courbes de Lorenz et des courbes de concentration des revenus, des impĂŽts ou des transferts permet de rĂ©sumer facilement et intuitivement l’impact de l’État sur la distribution des revenus. Nous nous intĂ©ressons plus particuliĂšrement Ă  la redistribution des revenus ainsi qu’à l’équitĂ© verticale et l’iniquitĂ© horizontale exercĂ©es par l’impĂŽt direct et les politiques de transferts. En appliquant des poids « éthiques » Ă  la distance entre les courbes de Lorenz et de concentration, l’on obtient des indices synthĂ©tiques d’inĂ©galitĂ©, de redistribution et d’équitĂ© qui peuvent ĂȘtre facilement dĂ©composĂ©s en contributions individuelles des diffĂ©rents types d’impĂŽts et de transferts. Ces indices reprĂ©sentent une gĂ©nĂ©ralisation et une extension de l’indice d’inĂ©galitĂ© bien connu de Gini. Cette approche est illustrĂ©e Ă  l’aide de la distribution et de la redistribution des revenus au Canada au cours de la derniĂšre dĂ©cennie. On confirme le rĂ©sultat bien connu que l’inĂ©galitĂ© des revenus bruts s’est accrue de 1981 Ă  1990 alors qu’elle a chutĂ© pour le revenu net. La redistribution opĂ©rĂ©e par le systĂšme fiscal s’est considĂ©rablement accrue au cours de cette dĂ©cennie, au prix entre autres choses d’une plus grande iniquitĂ© horizontale. Le groupe de transferts reliĂ©s Ă  la retraite et Ă  la vieillesse est celui qui exerce de loin le plus d’impact sur la redistribution des revenus. L’impact redistributif de l’impĂŽt direct est quant Ă  lui trĂšs sensible au paramĂštre de subjectivitĂ© Ă©thique utilisĂ©.

    Inégalité et redistribution du revenu, avec une application au Canada

    Get PDF
    L'utilitĂ© des courbes de Lorenz pour l'analyse de la rĂ©partition des revenus est bien connue depuis l'article influent d'Atkinson (1970). Nous indiquons dans le prĂ©sent article comment l'usage combinĂ© de ces courbes de Lorenz et des courbes de concentration des revenus, des impĂŽts ou des transferts permet de rĂ©sumer facilement et intuitivement l'impact de l'État sur la distribution des revenus. Nous nous intĂ©ressons plus particuliĂšrement Ă  la redistribution des revenus ainsi qu'Ă  l'Ă©quitĂ© verticale et l'iniquitĂ© horizontale exercĂ©es par l'impĂŽt direct et les politiques de transferts. En appliquant des poids "Ă©thiques" Ă  la distance entre les courbes de Lorenz et de concentration, l'on obtient des indices synthĂ©tiques d'inĂ©galitĂ©, de redistribution et d'Ă©quitĂ© qui peuvent ĂȘtre facilement dĂ©composĂ©s en contributions individuelles des diffĂ©rents types d'impĂŽts et de transferts. Ces indices reprĂ©sentent une gĂ©nĂ©ralisation et une extension de l'indice d'inĂ©galitĂ© bien connu de Gini. Cette approche est illustrĂ©e Ă  l'aide de la distribution et de la redistribution des revenus au Canada au cours de la derniĂšre dĂ©cennie. On confirme le rĂ©sultat bien connu que l'inĂ©galitĂ© des revenus bruts s'est accrue de 1981 Ă  1990 alors qu'elle a chutĂ© pour le revenu net. La redistribution opĂ©rĂ©e par le systĂšme fiscal s'est considĂ©rablement accrue au cours de cette dĂ©cennie, au prix entre autres choses d'une plus grande iniquitĂ© horizontale. Le groupe de transferts reliĂ©s Ă  la retraite et Ă  la vieillesse est celui qui exerce de loin le plus d'impact sur la redistribution des revenus. L'impact redistributif de l'impĂŽt direct est quant Ă  lui trĂšs sensible au paramĂštre de subjectivitĂ© Ă©thique utilisĂ©.

    Activation-Induced Apoptosis of Autoreactive and Alloreactive T Lymphocytes in the Target Organ as a Major Mechanism of Tolerance

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    Normal individuals have mature T lymphocytes that are capable of reacting to self-antigens and can be activated by cross-reacting environmental antigens. The mechanism that maintains immune tolerance and prevents these activated autoreactive T cells from causing autoimmune disease is unclear. We have previously hypothesized that activation-induced apoptosis of previously activated autoreactive T cells in the target organ is a major mechanism for maintaining tolerance. Here I review the current evidence to support this hypothesis. It is proposed that when activated autoreactive T cells enter the target organ, they are reactivated mainly by non-professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) and deleted by activation-induced apoptosis through the Fas (CD95) pathway before producing significant target organ damage. This apoptosis occurs because the reactivated T cells do not receive sufficient costimulation from the non-professional APC to up-regulate their expression of Bcl-2-related anti-apoptotic proteins, which inhibit the CD95 pro-apoptotic pathway. This is in contrast to the situation in peripheral lymphoid organs, where reactivation of T cells by professional APC results in sufficient costimulation-induced up-regulation of Bcl-2-related proteins to inhibit the CD95 pathway and allow T cell proliferation and survival as memory T cells. Activation-induced apoptosis of alloreactive T cells in allografts can similarly account for spontaneous allograft acceptance, as occurs after MHC-mismatched liver transplantation

    Apoptosis of Inflammatory Cells in Immune Control of the Nervous System: Role of Glia

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    Normal individuals have T lymphocytes capable of reacting to central nervous system (CNS) antigens such as myelin basic protein (MBP) (Martin et al., [1990]). In view of recent evidence indicating that T cells are much more cross-reactive than previously thought (Mason, [1998]), it is likely that these autoreactive T cells are often primed by exposure to cross-reacting environmental antigens. Indeed it has been shown that viral and bacterial peptides can activate myelin-reactive human T cells (Wucherpfennig and Strominger, [1995]; Hemmer et al., [1997]). Furthermore, normal healthy subjects experience surges of increased frequencies of circulating myelin-reactive T cells that might be driven by cross-reactive environmental antigens (Pender et al., [2000]). Such activated myelin-reactive T cells would be expected to enter the CNS in healthy individuals, because activated T cells of any specificity, including autoreactive T cells, enter the normal CNS parenchyma (Wekerle et al., [1986]; Hickey et al., [1991]). If CNS-reactive T cells survive in the CNS, they have the potential to attack the CNS, either directly or through the recruitment of other inflammatory cells, and thus lead to CNS damage such as demyelination. Therefore, the physiological control of autoreactive T cells in the CNS is likely to have an important role in preventing the development of autoimmune CNS disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) (Pender, [1998]). T-cell apoptosis in the CNS has been proposed to be an important mechanism for controlling autoimmune attacks on the CNS (Pender et al., [1992]; Schmied et al., [1993]). Although other mechanisms, such as immune deviation (Wenkel et al., [2000]), may possibly also contribute to the control of the immune response in the CNS, this review will focus on T-cell apoptosis in the CNS and the role of glia in this process

    Epstein-Barr Virus and Autoimmunity

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    There is a large body of evidence that infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the aetiological agent of infectious mononucleosis, has a role in the pathogenesis of many human chronic autoimmune diseases. This chapter will review the evidence for the role of EBV in each of these diseases and also focus on the features that are common to the different human chronic autoimmune diseases, with the aim of providing an explanation for what appears to be a unique role for EBV in the pathogenesis of these diseases

    Unravelling the mechanisms that determine the uptake and metabolism of magnetic single and multicore nanoparticles in a Xenopus laevis model.

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    Multicore superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed as ideal tools for some biomedical applications because of their high magnetic moment per particle, high specific surface area and long term colloidal stability. Through controlled aggregation and packing of magnetic cores it is possible to obtain not only single-core but also multicore and hollow spheres with internal voids. In this work, we compare toxicological properties of single and multicore nanoparticles. Both types of particles showed moderate in vitro toxicity (MTT assay) tested in Hep G2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) cells. The influence of surface chemistry in their biological behavior was also studied after functionalization with O,Oâ€Č-bis(2-aminoethyl) PEG (2000 Da). For the first time, these nanoparticles were evaluated in a Xenopus laevis model studying their whole organism toxicity and their impact upon iron metabolism. The degree of activation of the metabolic pathway depends on the size and surface charge of the nanoparticles which determine their uptake. The results also highlight the potential of Xenopus laevis model bridging the gap between in vitro cell-based assays and rodent models for toxicity assessment to develop effective nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Decreased production of TNF-alpha by lymph node cells indicates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis remission in Lewis rats

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    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is mediated by CD4+ Th1 cells that mainly secrete IFN-γ and TNF-α, important cytokines in the pathophysiology of the disease. Spontaneous remission is, in part, attributed to the down regulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α by TGF-β. In the current paper, we compared weight, histopathology and immunological parameters during the acute and recovery phases of EAE to establish the best biomarker for clinical remission. Female Lewis rats were immunised with myelin basic protein (MBP) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. Animals were evaluated daily for clinical score and weight prior to euthanisation. All immunised animals developed the expected characteristics of EAE during the acute phase, including significant weight loss and high clinical scores. Disease remission was associated with a significant reduction in clinical scores, although immunised rats did not regain their initial weight values. Brain inflammatory infiltrates were higher during the acute phase. During the remission phase, anti-myelin antibody levels increased, whereas TNF-α and IFN-γ production by lymph node cells cultured with MBP or concanavalin A, respectively, decreased. The most significant difference observed between the acute and recovery phases was in the induction of TNF-α levels in MBP-stimulated cultures. Therefore, the in vitro production of this cytokine could be used as a biomarker for EAE remission

    The international EAACI/GAÂČLEN/EuroGuiDerm/APAAACI guideline for the definition, classification, diagnosis, and management of urticaria

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    This update and revision of the international guideline for urticaria was developed following the methods recommended by Cochrane and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group. It is a joint initiative of the Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) and its Urticaria and Angioedema Centers of Reference and Excellence (UCAREs and ACAREs), the European Dermatology Forum (EDF; EuroGuiDerm), and the Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology with the participation of 64 delegates of 50 national and international societies and from 31 countries. The consensus conference was held on 3 December 2020. This guideline was acknowledged and accepted by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). Urticaria is a frequent, mast cell-driven disease that presents with wheals, angioedema, or both. The lifetime prevalence for acute urticaria is approximately 20%. Chronic spontaneous or inducible urticaria is disabling, impairs quality of life, and affects performance at work and school. This updated version of the international guideline for urticaria covers the definition and classification of urticaria and outlines expert-guided and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the different subtypes of urticaria
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