187 research outputs found

    EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field

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    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the ‘international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques’ at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques

    Validation of modelling the radiation exposure due to solar particle events at aircraft altitudes

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    Dose assessment procedures for cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced in most European countries in accordance with the corresponding European directive and national regulations. However, the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research. Here we describe the European research project CONRAD, WP6, Subgroup-B, about the current status of available solar storm measurements and existing models for dose estimation at flight altitudes during solar particle events leading to ground level enhancement (GLE). Three models for the numerical dose estimation during GLEs are discussed. Some of the models agree with limited experimental data reasonably well. Analysis of GLEs during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is still complex and time consuming. Currently available solar particle event models can disagree with each other by an order of magnitude. Further research and verification by on-board measurements is still neede

    Cooperation between Engulfment Receptors: The Case of ABCA1 and MEGF10

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    The engulfment of dying cells is a specialized form of phagocytosis that is extremely conserved across evolution. In the worm, it is genetically controlled by two parallel pathways, which are only partially reconstituted in mammals. We focused on the recapitulation of the CED-1 defined pathway in mammalian systems. We first explored and validated MEGF10, a novel receptor bearing striking structural similarities to CED-1, as a bona fide functional ortholog in mammals and hence progressed toward the analysis of molecular interactions along the corresponding pathway. We ascertained that, in a system of forced expression by transfection, MEGF10 function can be modulated by the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA1, ortholog to CED-7. Indeed, the coexpression of either a functional or a mutant ABCA1 exerted a transdominant positive or negative modulation on the MEGF10-dependent engulfment. The combined use of biochemical and biophysical approaches indicated that this functional cooperation relies on the alternate association of these receptors with a common partner, endogenously expressed in our cell system. We provide the first working model structuring in mammals the CED-1 dependent pathway

    A comparison of the response of PADC neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields

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    Within the framework of the EURADOS Working Group 11, a comparison of passive neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields was organised in 2011. The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the response of poly-allyl-glycol-carbonate neutron dosemeters from various European dosimetry laboratories to high-energy neutron fields. Irradiations were performed at the iThemba LABS facility in South Africa with neutrons having energies up to 66 and 100 Me

    Uncertainty on radiation doses estimated by biological and retrospective physical methods

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    Biological and physical retrospective dosimetry are recognised as key techniques to provide individual estimates of dose following unplanned exposures to ionising radiation. Whilst there has been a relatively large amount of recent development in the biological and physical procedures, development of statistical analysis techniques has failed to keep pace. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of the art in uncertainty analysis techniques across the ‘EURADOS Working Group 10— Retrospective dosimetry’ members, to give concrete examples of implementation of the techniques recommended in the international standards, and to further promote the use of Monte Carlo techniques to support characterisation of uncertainties. It is concluded that sufficient techniques are available and in use by most laboratories for acute, whole body exposures to highly penetrating radiation, but further work will be required to ensure that statistical analysis is always wholly sufficient for the more complex exposure scenarios

    Realising the European network of biodosimetry: RENEB-status quo

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    Creating a sustainable network in biological and retrospective dosimetry that involves a large number of experienced laboratories throughout the European Union (EU) will significantly improve the accident and emergency response capabilities in case of a large-scale radiological emergency. A well-organised cooperative action involving EU laboratories will offer the best chance for fast and trustworthy dose assessments that are urgently needed in an emergency situation. To this end, the EC supports the establishment of a European network in biological dosimetry (RENEB). The RENEB project started in January 2012 involving cooperation of 23 organisations from 16 European countries. The purpose of RENEB is to increase the biodosimetry capacities in case of large-scale radiological emergency scenarios. The progress of the project since its inception is presented, comprising the consolidation process of the network with its operational platform, intercomparison exercises, training activities, proceedings in quality assurance and horizon scanning for new methods and partners. Additionally, the benefit of the network for the radiation research community as a whole is addressed

    Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans Is Mediated by Cdr1-p Extrusion and Depletion of Intracellular Glutathione

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    Farnesol is a key derivative in the sterol biosynthesis pathway in eukaryotic cells previously identified as a quorum sensing molecule in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Recently, we demonstrated that above threshold concentrations, farnesol is capable of triggering apoptosis in C. albicans. However, the exact mechanism of farnesol cytotoxicity is not fully elucidated. Lipophilic compounds such as farnesol are known to conjugate with glutathione, an antioxidant crucial for cellular detoxification against damaging compounds. Glutathione conjugates act as substrates for ATP-dependent ABC transporters and are extruded from the cell. To that end, this current study was undertaken to validate the hypothesis that farnesol conjugation with intracellular glutathione coupled with Cdr1p-mediated extrusion of glutathione conjugates, results in total glutathione depletion, oxidative stress and ultimately fungal cell death. The combined findings demonstrated a significant decrease in intracellular glutathione levels concomitant with up-regulation of CDR1 and decreased cell viability. However, addition of exogenous reduced glutathione maintained intracellular glutathione levels and enhanced viability. In contrast, farnesol toxicity was decreased in a mutant lacking CDR1, whereas it was increased in a CDR1-overexpressing strain. Further, gene expression studies demonstrated significant up-regulation of the SOD genes, primary enzymes responsible for defense against oxidative stress, with no changes in expression in CDR1. This is the first study describing the involvement of Cdr1p-mediated glutathione efflux as a mechanism preceding the farnesol-induced apoptotic process in C. albicans. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying farnesol-cytotoxicity in C. albicans may lead to the development of this redox-cycling agent as an alternative antifungal agent

    Radiation chemistry of solid-state carbohydrates using EMR

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    We review our research of the past decade towards identification of radiation-induced radicals in solid state sugars and sugar phosphates. Detailed models of the radical structures are obtained by combining EPR and ENDOR experiments with DFT calculations of g and proton HF tensors, with agreement in their anisotropy serving as most important criterion. Symmetry-related and Schonland ambiguities, which may hamper such identification, are reviewed. Thermally induced transformations of initial radiation damage into more stable radicals can also be monitored in the EPR (and ENDOR) experiments and in principle provide information on stable radical formation mechanisms. Thermal annealing experi-ments reveal, however, that radical recombination and/or diamagnetic radiation damage is also quite important. Analysis strategies are illustrated with research on sucrose. Results on dipotassium glucose-1-phosphate and trehalose dihydrate, fructose and sorbose are also briefly discussed. Our study demonstrates that radiation damage is strongly regio-selective and that certain general principles govern the stable radical formation

    Radiation accident dosimetry on plastics by epr spectrometry

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    In case of acute exposure to ionizing radiation, the dose absorbed by the victims has to be rapidly and accurately assessed in order to choose an appropriate medical treatment. Tooth enamel and bone biopsies measured by EPR spectrometry are often used as dose indicators, due to the good radiation sensitivity and the stability of EPR radiation-sensitive signals. Nevertheless, the invasive sampling of teeth and bones limits the application of this technique to retrospective dosimetry. Therefore, we have investigated an alternative non-invasive methodology. We have surveyed with EPR spectrometry the dosimetric properties of the plastics that can be found in personal effects such as glasses (CR-39, polycarbonate), mobile phones (PMMA, polycarbonate), watches and buttons. Dose response, signal stability and effects of storage conditions were investigated. Significant signal fading limits the use for radiation accident dosimetry. Few plastics present the required characteristics to be used in case of a radiation accident. © 2010 Health Physics Society