463,615 research outputs found

    A k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation

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    A k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation in absorptive media is presented. The Westervelt equation is first transferred into k-space via Fourier transformation, and is solved by a modified wave-vector time-domain scheme [Mast et al., IEEE Tran. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 341-354 (2001)]. The present approach is not limited to forward propagation or parabolic approximation. One- and two-dimensional problems are investigated to verify the method by comparing results to the finite element method. It is found that, in order to obtain accurate results in homogeneous media, the grid size can be as little as two points per wavelength, and for a moderately nonlinear problem, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number can be as small as 0.4. As a result, the k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation is shown here to be computationally more efficient than the conventional finite element method or finite-difference time-domain method for the conditions studied here. However, although the present method is highly accurate for weakly inhomogeneous media, it is found to be less accurate for strongly inhomogeneous media. A possible remedy to this limitation is discussed

    Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

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    Photospheric vector magnetograms from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both non-linear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%<60\%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.Comment: The paper was submitted to ApJ and it is accepted no

    Exponential Decay for Damped Klein-Gordon Equations on Asymptotically Cylindrical and Conic Manifolds

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    We study the decay of the global energy for the damped Klein-Gordon equation on non-compact manifolds with finitely many cylindrical and subconic ends up to bounded perturbation. We prove that under the Geometric Control Condition, the decay is exponential, and that under the weaker Network Control Condition, the decay is logarithmic, by developing the global Carleman estimate with multiple weights
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