213,290 research outputs found

    Colective Effects from Induced Behaviour

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    We present a solvable model for describing quantitatively situations where the individual behaviour of agents in a group "percolates" to collective behaviour of the group as a whole as a result of mutual influence between the agents.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, EPJ macro

    Awaking the Sleeping Dragon: The Evolving Chinese Patent Laws and its Implications for Pharmeceutical Patents

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    Part I of this Comment will discuss the development of the Chinese IP system and discuss why it has been ineffective in protecting pharmaceutical patents by comparing it to the US patent system. Part II analyzes the third amendment to the Chinese patent law and how it protects patents, particularly pharmaceutical ones, and deters counterfeiters from infringing upon the patents. Part II also presents different views on the effectiveness of the third amendment to protect patents. Part III argues that even though the third amendment is a great leap forward, pharmaceutical counterfeiting will continue to happen if the local governments do not cooperate with the central government in enforcing patent protection laws

    Hydromechanics of low-Reynolds-number flow. Part 2. Singularity method for Stokes flows

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    The present study furthcr explores the fundamental singular solutions for Stokes flow that can be useful for constructing solutions over a wide range of free-stream profiles and body shapes. The primary singularity is the Stokeslet, which is associated with a singular point force embedded in a Stokes flow. From its derivatives other fundamental singularities can be obtained, including rotlets, stresslets, potential doublets and higher-order poles derived from them. For treating interior Stokes-flow problems new fundamental solutions are introduced; they include the Stokeson and its derivatives, called the roton and stresson. These fundamental singularities are employed here to construct exact solutions to a number of exterior and interior Stokes-flow problems for several specific body shapes translating and rotating in a viscous fluid which may itself be providing a primary flow. The different primary flows considered here include the uniform stream, shear flows, parabolic profiles and extensional flows (hyperbolic profiles), while the body shapcs cover prolate spheroids, spheres and circular cylinders. The salient features of these exact solutions (all obtained in closed form) regarding the types of singularities required for the construction of a solution in each specific case, their distribution densities and the range of validity of the solution, which may depend on the characteristic Reynolds numbers and governing geometrical parameters, are discussed

    Swimming of a Waving Plate

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    The purpose of this paper is to study the basic principle of fish propulsion. As a simplified model, the two-dimensional potential flow over a waving plate of finite chord is treated. The solid plate, assumed to be flexible and thin, is capable of performing the motion which consists of a progressing wave of given wave length and phase velocity along the chord, the envelope of the wave train being an arbitrary function of the distance from the leading edge. The problem is solved by applying the general theory for oscillating deformable airfoils. The thrust, power required, and the energy imparted to the wake are calculated, and the propulsive efficiency is also evaluated. As a numerical example, the waving motion with linearly varying amplitude is carried out in detail. Finally, the basic mechanism of swimming is elucidated by applying the principle of action and reaction

    On the finiteness of the classifying space for the family of virtually cyclic subgroups

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    Given a group G, we consider its classifying space for the family of virtually cyclic subgroups. We show for many groups, including for example, one-relator groups, acylindrically hyperbolic groups, 3-manifold groups and CAT(0) cube groups, that they do not admit a finite model for this classifying space unless they are virtually cyclic. This settles a conjecture due to Juan-Pineda and Leary for these classes of groups

    Hydromechanics of swimming propulsion. Part 3. Swimming and optimum movements of slender fish with side fins

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    This paper seeks to evaluate the swimming flow around a typical slender fish whose transverse cross-section to the rear of its maximum span section is of a lenticular shape with pointed edges, such as those of spiny fins, so that these side edges are sharp trailing edges, from which an oscillating vortex sheet is shed to trail the body in swimming. The additional feature of shedding of vortex sheet makes this problem a moderate generalization of the paper on the swimming of slender fish treated by Lighthill (1960a). It is found here that the thrust depends not only on the virtual mass of the tail-end section, but also on an integral effect of variations of the virtual mass along the entire body segment containing the trailing side edges, and that this latter effect can greatly enhance the thrust-making. The optimum shape problem considered here is to determine the transverse oscillatory movements a slender fish can make which will produce a prescribed thrust, so as to overcome the frictional drag, at the expense of the minimum work done in maintaining the motion. The solution is for the fish to send a wave down its body at a phase velocity c somewhat greater than the desired swimming speed U, with an amplitude nearly uniform from the maximum span section to the tail. Both the ratio U/c and the optimum efficiency are found to depend upon two parameters: the reduced wave frequency and a 'proportional-loading parameter', the latter being proportional to the thrust coefficient and to the inverse square of the wave amplitude. The basic mechanism of swimming is examined in the light of the principle of action and reaction by studying the vortex wake generated by the optimum movement

    Generation of upstream advancing solitons by moving disturbances

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    This study investigates the recently identified phenomenon whereby a forcing disturbance moving steadily with a transcritical velocity in shallow water can generate, periodically, a succession of solitary waves, advancing upstream of the disturbance in procession, while a train of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive waves develops downstream of a region of depressed water surface trailing just behind the disturbance. This phenomenon was numerically discovered by Wu & Wu (1982) based on the generalized Boussinesq model for describing two-dimensional long waves generated by moving surface pressure or topography. In a joint theoretical and experimental study, Lee (1985) found a broad agreement between the experiment and two theoretical models, the generalized Boussinesq and the forced Korteweg de Vries (fKdV) equations, both containing forcing functions. The fKdV model is applied in the present study to explore the basic mechanism underlying the phenomenon. To facilitate the analysis of the stability of solutions of the initial-boundary-value problem of the fKdV equation, a family of forced steady solitary waves is found. Any such solution, if once established, will remain permanent in form in accordance with the uniqueness theorem shown here. One of the simplest of the stationary solutions, which is a one-parameter family and can be scaled into a universal similarity form, is chosen for stability calculations. As a test of the computer code, the initially established stationary solution is found to be numerically permanent in form with fractional uncertainties of less than 2% after the wave has traversed, under forcing, the distance of 600 water depths. The other numerical results show that when the wave is initially so disturbed as to have to rise from the rest state, which is taken as the initial value, the same phenomenon of the generation of upstream-advancing solitons is found to appear, with a definite time period of generation. The result for this similarity family shows that the period of generation, T[sub]S, and the scaled amplitude [alpha] of the solitons so generated are related by the formula T[sub]S = const [alpha]^-3/2. This relation is further found to be in good agreement with the first-principle prediction derived here based on mass, momentum and energy considerations of the fKdV equation

    A Note on the Linear and Nonlinear Theories for Fully Cavitated Hydrofoils

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    The lifting problem of fully cavitated hydrofoils has recently received some attention. The nonlinear problem of two-dimensional fully cavitated hydrofoils has been treated by the author, using a generalized free streamline theory. The hydrofoils investigated in Ref. 1 were those with sharp leading and trailing edges which are assumed to be the separation points of the cavity streamlines. Except for this limitation, the nonlinear theory is applicable to hydrofoils of arbitrary geometric profile, operating at any cavitation number, and for almost all angles of attack as long as the cavity wake is fully developed. By using an elegant linear theory, Tulin has treated the problem of a fully cavitated flat plate set at a small angle of attack and operated at arbitrary cavitation number. In the case of hydrofoils of arbitrary profile operating at zero cavitation number, some interesting simple relationships are given by Tulin for the connection between the lift, drag and moment of a supercavitating hydrofoil and the lift, moment and the third moment of an equivalent airfoil (unstalled). In the present investigation, Tulin's linear theory is first extended to calculate the hydrodynamic lift and drag on a fully cavitated hydrofoil of arbitrary camber at arbitrary cavitation number. A numerical example is given for a circular hydrofoil subtending an arc angle of 160, for which the corresponding nonlinear solution is available. A direct comparison between these two theories is made explicitly for the flat plate and the circular arc hydrofoil. Some important aspects of the results are discussed subsequently

    Hydromechanics of swimming propulsion. Part 2. Some optimum shape problems

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    The optimum shape problems considered in this part are for those profiles of a two-dimensional flexible plate in time-harmonic motion that will minimize the energy loss under the condition of fixed thrust and possibly also under other isoperimetric constraints. First, the optimum movement of a rigid plate is completely determined; it is necessary first to reduce the original singular quadratic form representing the energy loss to a regular one of a lower order, which is then tractable by usual variational methods. A favourable range of the reduced frequency is found in which the thrust contribution coming from the leading-edge suction is as small as possible under the prescribed conditions, outside of which this contribution becomes so large as to be hard to realize in practice without stalling. This optimum solution is compared with the recent theory of Lighthill (1970); these independently arrived-at conclusions are found to be virtually in agreement. The present theory is further applied t0 predict the movement of a porpoise tail of large aspect-ratio and is found in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements. A qualitative discussion of the wing movement in flapping flight of birds is also given on the basis of optimum efficiency. The optimum shape of a flexible plate is analysed for the most general case of infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that the solution can be determined to a certain extent, but the exact shape is not always uniquely determinate