6,544 research outputs found

    Single-top-quark production at hadron colliders

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    Single-top-quark production probes the charged-current weak interaction of the top quark, and provides a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element V_{tb}. We perform two independent analyses to quantify the accuracy with which the W-gluon fusion (gq -> t\bar{b}q) and (q\bar{q} -> t\bar{b}) signals can be extracted from the backgrounds at both the Tevatron and the LHC. Although perturbation theory breaks down at low transverse momentum for the W-gluon fusion \bar{b} differential cross section, we show how to obtain a reliable cross section integrated over low \bar{b} transverse momenta up to a cutoff. We estimate the accuracy with which V_{tb} can be measured in both analyses, including theoretical and statistical uncertainties. We also show that the polarization of the top quark in W-gluon fusion can be detected at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC.Comment: Version to appear in PRD, 31 pages, LaTeX, 8 ps figure

    Effects Of Kaluza-Klein Excited W On Single Top Quark Production At Tevatron

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    In extra dimension theories if the gauge bosons of the standard model propagate in the bulk of the extra dimensions then they will have Kaluza-Klein excitations that can couple to the standard model fermions. In this paper we study the effects of the first excited Kaluza-Klein mode of the W on single top production at the Tevatron. We find that the cross section for the single top production can be significantly reduced if the mass of the first Kaluza-Klein excited W1W \sim 1 TeV. Hence, a measurement of the single top production cross section smaller than the standard model prediction would not necessarily imply Vtb<1V_{tb} <1 or evidence of extra generation(s) of fermions mixed with the third generation.Comment: Text added, Latex, 16 pages, 3 figures, To appear in Phys. Lett.

    Fully differential QCD corrections to single top quark final states

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    A new next-to-leading order Monte Carlo program for calculation of fully differential single top quark final states is described and first results presented. Both the s- and t-channel contributions are included.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures, talk presented at DPF2000, August 9-12, 2000. To appear in International Journal of Modern Physics

    Singe Top Production at LEP 200

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    We present exact tree level cross sections for the single top production process ee+eνˉetbˉe^- e^+ \rightarrow e^- \bar{\nu}_e t \bar{b} at LEP~200. The results reproduce roughly those obtained earlier by using the equivalent real photon approximation and we confirm the observation that detecting a top heavier than half the c.m.~energy is not feasible at LEP~200. The calculation has been performed by a new automatic Feynman amplitude generator MadGraph which produces HELAS code for the helicity amplitudes.Comment: 7 pages, 4 postscript figure

    Star formation history of Canis Major OB1 - II. A bimodal X-ray population revealed by XMM-Newton

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    The Canis Major OB1 Association has an intriguing scenario of star formation, especially in the Canis Major R1 (CMa R1) region traditionally assigned to a reflection nebula, but in reality an ionized region. This work is focused on the young stellar population associated to CMa R1, for which our previous results from ROSAT, optical and near-infrared data had revealed two stellar groups with different ages, suggesting a possible mixing of populations originated from distinct star-formation episodes. The X-ray data allow the detected sources to be characterized according to hardness ratios, light curves and spectra. Estimates of mass and age were obtained from the 2MASS catalogue, and used to define a complete subsample of stellar counterparts, for statistical purposes. A catalogue of 387 XMM-Newton sources is provided, 78% being confirmed as members or probable members of the CMa R1 association. Flares were observed for 13 sources, and the spectra of 21 bright sources could be fitted by a thermal plasma model. Mean values of fits parameters were used to estimate X-ray luminosities. We found a minimum value of log(LX_X[erg/s]) = 29.43, indicating that our sample of low-mass stars (M_\star \leq 0.5 M_\odot), being faint X-ray emitters, is incomplete. Among the 250 objects selected as our complete subsample (defining our best sample), 171 are found to the East of the cloud, near Z CMa and dense molecular gas, 50% of them being young ( 10 Myr). The opposite happens to the West, near GU CMa, in areas lacking molecular gas: among 79 objects, 30% are young and 50% are older. These findings confirm that a first episode of distributed star formation occurred in the whole studied region ~10 Myr ago and dispersed the molecular gas, while a second, localized episode (< 5 Myr) took place in the regions where molecular gas is still present.Comment: 38 pages, 21 figures, accepted for A&

    Phenotypic Effects of an Allele Causing Obligate Parthenogenesis in a Rotifer

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    Transitions to obligate asexuality have been documented in almost all metazoan taxa, yet the conditions favoring such transitions remained largely unexplored. We address this problem in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. In this species, a polymorphism at a single locus, op, can result in transitions to obligate parthenogenesis. Homozygotes for the op allele reproduce strictly by asexual reproduction, whereas heterozygous clones (+/op) and wild-type clones (+/+) are cyclical parthenogens that undergo sexual reproduction at high population densities. Here, we examine dosage effects of the op allele by analyzing various life-history characteristics and population traits in 10 clones for each of the 3 possible genotypes (op/op, +/op, and +/+). For most traits, we found that op/op clones differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes (+/+ and +/op). By contrast, the 2 cyclical parthenogenetic genotypes were almost indistinguishable, except that heterozygote individuals were slightly but significantly smaller in body size compared with wild-type individuals. Overall, this indicates that the op allele is selectively neutral in the heterozygous state. Thus, selective sweeps of this allele in natural populations would first require conditions favoring the generation of homozygotes. This may be given by inbreeding in very small populations or by double mutants in very large populations