38,408 research outputs found

    A Completely Invariant SUSY Transform of Supersymmetric QED

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    We study the SUSY breaking of the covariant gauge-fixing term in SUSY QED and observe that this corresponds to a breaking of the Lorentz gauge condition by SUSY. Reasoning by analogy with SUSY's violation of the Wess-Zumino gauge, we argue that the SUSY transformation, already modified to preserve Wess-Zumino gauge, should be further modified by another gauge transformation which restores the Lorentz gauge condition. We derive this modification and use the resulting transformation to derive a Ward identitiy relating the photon and photino propagators without using ghost fields. Our transformation also fulfills the SUSY algebra, modulo terms that vanish in Lorentz gauge

    Stellar Mixing and the Primordial Lithium Abundance

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    We compare the properties of recent samples of the lithium abundances in halo stars to one another and to the predictions of theoretical models including rotational mixing, and we examine the data for trends with metal abundance. We find from a KS test that in the absence of any correction for chemical evolution, the Ryan, Norris, & Beers (1999} sample is fully consistent with mild rotational mixing induced depletion and, therefore, with an initial lithium abundance higher than the observed value. Tests for outliers depend sensitively on the threshold for defining their presence, but we find a 10--45% probability that the RNB sample is drawn from the rotationally mixed models with a 0.2 dex median depletion (with lower probabilities corresponding to higher depletion factors). When chemical evolution trends (Li/H versus Fe/H) are treated in the linear plane we find that the dispersion in the RNB sample is not explained by chemical evolution; the inferred bounds on lithium depletion from rotational mixing are similar to those derived from models without chemical evolution. We find that differences in the equivalent width measurements are primarily responsible for different observational conclusions concerning the lithium dispersion in halo stars. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis predicted lithium abundance which corresponds to the deuterium abundance inferred from observations of high-redshift, low-metallicity QSO absorbers requires halo star lithium depletion in an amount consistent with that from our models of rotational mixing, but inconsistent with no depletion.Comment: 39 pages, 9 figures; submitted Ap

    Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

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    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed

    Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

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    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code

    Band Crossing studied by GCM with 3D-CHFB

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    We solved the constrained Hill-Wheeler Equation, and found several signatures of multi-band crossing in 182 Os.Comment: LaTeX 3 pages, 3 eps figures; Contribution to International Conference, Nuclear Structure at the extreme,Lewes, UK, (1998) Jun.17-1

    Predicting Big Bang Deuterium

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    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and helium-3 based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95\% C.L.): 1.5×105(D/H)P10.0×1051.5 \times 10^{-5} \le (D/H)_P \le 10.0 \times 10^{-5} and (3He/H)P2.6×105(^3He/H)_P \le 2.6\times 10^{-5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95\% C.L. bound on the primordial abundance of deuterium: (D/H)best=(3.51.8+2.7)×105(D/H)_{best} = (3.5^{+2.7}_{-1.8})\times 10^{-5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of helium-4 and lithium-7 are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons.Comment: Revised version of paper to reflect comments of the referee and reply to suggestions of Copi, Schramm, and Turner regarding the overall analysis and treatment of chemical evolution of D and He-3. Best-fit D/H abundance changes from (2.3 + 3.0 - 1.0)x10^{-5} to (3.5 +2.7 - 1.8) x10^{-5}. See also hep-ph/950531