351 research outputs found

    Quantum detectors for the third cumulant of current fluctuations

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    We consider the measurement of the third cumulant of current fluctuations arising from a point contact, employing the transitions that they cause in a quantum detector connected to the contact. We detail two generic detectors: a quantum two-level system and a harmonic oscillator. In these systems, for an arbitrary relation between the voltage driving the point contact and the energy scales of the detectors, the results can be expressed in terms of an effective detector temperature T_eff. The third cumulant can be found from the dependence of T_eff on the sign of the driving voltage. We find that proper ordering of the fluctuation operators is relevant in the analysis of the transition rates. This is reflected in the effective Fano factor for the third cumulant measured in such setups: it depends on the ratio of the voltage and an energy scale describing the circuit where the fluctuations are produced.Comment: 12+ pages, 8 figure

    Photon heat transport in low-dimensional nanostructures

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    At low temperatures when the phonon modes are effectively frozen, photon transport is the dominating mechanism of thermal relaxation in metallic systems. Starting from a microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we develop a nonequilibrium Green's function method to study energy transport by photons in nanostructures. A formally exact expression for the energy current between a metallic island and a one-dimensional electromagnetic field is obtained. From this expression we derive the quantized thermal conductance as well as show how the results can be generalized to nonequilibrium situations. Generally, the frequency-dependent current noise of the island electrons determines the energy transfer rate.Comment: 4 pages, 3 Fig

    Quantum transitions induced by the third cumulant of current fluctuations

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    We investigate the transitions induced by external current fluctuations on a small probe quantum system. The rates for the transitions between the energy states are calculated using the real-time Keldysh formalism for the density matrix evolution. We especially detail the effects of the third cumulant of current fluctuations inductively coupled to a quantum bit and propose a setup for detecting the frequency-dependent third cumulant through the transitions it induces.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Kohn-Sham potential with discontinuity for band gap materials

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    We model a Kohn-Sham potential with a discontinuity at integer particle numbers derived from the GLLB approximation of Gritsenko et al. We evaluate the Kohn-Sham gap and the discontinuity to obtain the quasiparticle gap. This allows us to compare the Kohn-Sham gaps to those obtained by accurate many-body perturbation theory based optimized potential methods. In addition, the resulting quasiparticle band gap is compared to experimental gaps. In the GLLB model potential, the exchange-correlation hole is modeled using a GGA energy density and the response of the hole to density variations is evaluated by using the common-denominator approximation and homogeneous electron gas based assumptions. In our modification, we have chosen the PBEsol potential as the GGA to model the exchange hole, and add a consistent correlation potential. The method is implemented in the GPAW code, which allows efficient parallelization to study large systems. A fair agreement for Kohn-Sham and the quasiparticle band gaps with semiconductors and other band gap materials is obtained with a potential which is as fast as GGA to calculate.Comment: submitted to Physical Review

    Effective capacitance in a single-electron transistor

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    Starting from the Kubo formula for conductance, we calculate the frequency-dependent response of a single-electron transistor (SET) driven by an ac signal. Treating tunneling processes within the lowest order approximation, valid for a wide range of parameters, we discover a finite reactive part even under Coulomb blockade due to virtual processes. At low frequencies this can be described by an effective capacitance. This effect can be probed with microwave reflection measurements in radio-frequency (rf) SET provided that the capacitance of the surroundings does not completely mask that of the SET.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures In the past few days we have noticed a serious sign error in the theory presented in this preprint, which essentially changes the sign of the capacitance correction. That is, otherwise the physics is as described, but the sign is incorrect. The new version reflects these change

    Equivalent qubit dynamics under classical and quantum noise

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    We study the dynamics of quantum systems under classical and quantum noise, focusing on decoherence in qubit systems. Classical noise is described by a random process leading to a stochastic temporal evolution of a closed quantum system, whereas quantum noise originates from the coupling of the microscopic quantum system to its macroscopic environment. We derive deterministic master equations describing the average evolution of the quantum system under classical continuous-time Markovian noise and two sets of master equations under quantum noise. Strikingly, these three equations of motion are shown to be equivalent in the case of classical random telegraph noise and proper quantum environments. Hence fully quantum-mechanical models within the Born approximation can be mapped to a quantum system under classical noise. Furthermore, we apply the derived equations together with pulse optimization techniques to achieve high-fidelity one-qubit operations under random telegraph noise, and hence fight decoherence in these systems of great practical interest.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures; converted to PRA format, added Fig. 2, corrected typo

    State-dependent impedance of a strongly coupled oscillator-qubit system

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    We investigate the measurements of two-state quantum systems (qubits) at finite temperatures using a resonant harmonic oscillator as a quantum probe. The reduced density matrix and oscillator correlators are calculated by a scheme combining numerical methods with an analytical perturbation theory. Correlators provide us information about the system impedance, which depends on the qubit state. We show in detail how this property can be exploited in the qubit measurement.Comment: 8 pages, 16 image
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