42,986 research outputs found

### Magnetic field induced 3D to 1D crossover in Sr0:9La0:1CuO2

The effect of the magnetic field on the critical behavior of Sr0:9La0:1CuO2
is explored in terms of reversible magnetization data. As the correlation
length transverse to the magnetic field Hi,applied along the i-axis, cannot
grow beyond the limiting magnetic length LHi, related to the average distance
between vortex lines, one expects a magnetic field induced finite size effect.
Invoking the scaling theory of critical phenomena we provide clear evidence for
this effect. It implies that in type II superconductors there is a 3D to 1D
crossover line Hpi(T). Consequently, below Tc and above Hpi(T) uperconductivity
is confined to cylinders with diameter LHi(1D). Accordingly, there is no
continuous phase transition in the (H,T)-plane along the Hc2-lines as predicted
by the mean-field treatment.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

### Partial Coherence Estimation via Spectral Matrix Shrinkage under Quadratic Loss

Partial coherence is an important quantity derived from spectral or precision
matrices and is used in seismology, meteorology, oceanography, neuroscience and
elsewhere. If the number of complex degrees of freedom only slightly exceeds
the dimension of the multivariate stationary time series, spectral matrices are
poorly conditioned and shrinkage techniques suggest themselves. When true
partial coherencies are quite large then for shrinkage estimators of the
diagonal weighting kind it is shown empirically that the minimization of risk
using quadratic loss (QL) leads to oracle partial coherence estimators superior
to those derived by minimizing risk using Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) loss. When true
partial coherencies are small the methods behave similarly. We derive two new
QL estimators for spectral matrices, and new QL and HS estimators for precision
matrices. In addition for the full estimation (non-oracle) case where certain
trace expressions must also be estimated, we examine the behaviour of three
different QL estimators, the precision matrix one seeming particularly robust
and reliable. For the empirical study we carry out exact simulations derived
from real EEG data for two individuals, one having large, and the other small,
partial coherencies. This ensures our study covers cases of real-world
relevance

### Implications of the isotope effects on the magnetization, magnetic torque and susceptibility

We analyze the magnetization, magnetic torque and susceptibility data of
La2-xSrxCu(16,18)O4 and YBa2(63,65)CuO7-x near Tc in terms of the universal
3D-XY scaling relations. It is shown that the isotope effect on Tc mirrors that
on the anisotropy. Invoking the generic behavior of the anisotropy the doping
dependence of the isotope effects on the critical properties, including Tc,
correlation lengths and magnetic penetration depths are traced back to a change
of the mobile carrier concentration.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

### Finite-size and pressure effects in YBa_2Cu_4O_8 probed by magnetic field penetration depth measurements

We explore the combined pressure and finite-size effects on the in-plane
penetration depth \lambda_{ab} in YBa_2Cu_4O_8. Even though this cuprate is
stoichiometric the finite-size scaling analysis of \lambda_{ab}^{-2}(T)
uncovers the granular nature and reveals domains with nanoscale size L_{c}
along the c-axis. L_{c} ranges from 33.2 Angstrom to 28.9 Angstrom at pressures
from 0.5 to 11.5 kbar. These observations raise serious doubts on the existence
of a phase coherent macroscopic superconducting state in cuprate
superconductors.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figure

### On the role of shake-off in single-photon double ionization

The role of shake-off for double ionization of atoms by a single photon with
finite energy has become the subject of debate. In this letter, we attempt to
clarify the meaning of shake-off at low photon energies by comparing different
formulations appearing in the literature and by suggesting a working
definition. Moreover, we elaborate on the foundation and justification of a
mixed quantum-classical ansatz for the calculation of single-photon double
ionization

### Specific protein-protein binding in many-component mixtures of proteins

Proteins must bind to specific other proteins in vivo in order to function.
The proteins must bind only to one or a few other proteins of the of order a
thousand proteins typically present in vivo. Using a simple model of a protein,
specific binding in many component mixtures is studied. It is found to be a
demanding function in the sense that it demands that the binding sites of the
proteins be encoded by long sequences of bits, and the requirement for specific
binding then strongly constrains these sequences. This is quantified by the
capacity of proteins of a given size (sequence length), which is the maximum
number of specific-binding interactions possible in a mixture. This calculation
of the maximum number possible is in the same spirit as the work of Shannon and
others on the maximum rate of communication through noisy channels.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures (changes for v2 mainly notational - to be more in
line with notation in information theory literature

### Implications evinced by the phase diagram, anisotropy, magnetic penetration depths, isotope effects and conductivities of cuprate superconductors

Anisotropy, thermal and quantum fluctuations and their dependence on dopant
concentration appear to be present in all cuprate superconductors, interwoven
with the microscopic mechanisms responsible for superconductivity. Here we
review anisotropy, in-plane and c-axis penetration depths, isotope effect and
conductivity measurements to reassess the universal behavior of cuprates as
revealed by the doping dependence of these phenomena and of the transition
temperature.Comment: 14 pages, 13 figure

### Generalized Robba rings

We prove that any projective coadmissible module over the locally analytic
distribution algebra of a compact $p$-adic Lie group is finitely generated. In
particular, the category of coadmissible modules does not have enough
projectives. In the Appendix a "generalized Robba ring" for uniform pro-$p$
groups is constructed which naturally contains the locally analytic
distribution algebra as a subring. The construction uses the theory of
generalized microlocalization of quasi-abelian normed algebras that is also
developed there. We equip this generalized Robba ring with a self-dual locally
convex topology extending the topology on the distribution algebra. This is
used to show some results on coadmissible modules.Comment: with an appendix by Peter Schneider; revised; new titl

### The cranking formula and the spurious behaviour of the mass parameters

We discuss some aspects of the approach of the mass parameters by means of
the simple cranking model. In particular, it is well known that the numerical
application of this formula is often subject to ambiguities or contradictions.
It is found that these problems are induced by the presence of two derivatives
in the formula. To overcome these problems, we state a useful ansatz and we
develop a number of simple arguments which tend to justify the removal of these
terms. As soon as this is done, the formula becomes simpler and easier to
interpret. In this respect, it is shown how the shell effects affect the mass
parameters. A number of numerical tests help us in our conclusions.Comment: version 3 corrigendum of the ansatz of section V, corrigendum of the
legend of Fig3. Submission = text file + 5 figure

- â€¦