765 research outputs found

### Timelike and null focusing singularities in spherical symmetry: a solution to the cosmological horizon problem and a challenge to the cosmic censorship hypothesis

Extending the study of spherically symmetric metrics satisfying the dominant
energy condition and exhibiting singularities of power-law type initiated in
SI93, we identify two classes of peculiar interest: focusing timelike
singularity solutions with the stress-energy tensor of a radiative perfect
fluid (equation of state: $p={1\over 3} \rho$) and a set of null singularity
classes verifying identical properties. We consider two important applications
of these results: to cosmology, as regards the possibility of solving the
horizon problem with no need to resort to any inflationary scenario, and to the
Strong Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis to which we propose a class of physically
consistent counter-examples.Comment: 26 pages, 2 figures, LaTeX file. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

### Newtonian and Post-Newtonian approximations of the k = 0 Friedmann Robertson Walker Cosmology

In a previous paper we derived a post-Newtonian approximation to cosmology
which, in contrast to former Newtonian and post-Newtonian cosmological
theories, has a well-posed initial value problem. In this paper, this new
post-Newtonian theory is compared with the fully general relativistic theory,
in the context of the k = 0 Friedmann Robertson Walker cosmologies. It is found
that the post-Newtonian theory reproduces the results of its general
relativistic counterpart, whilst the Newtonian theory does not.Comment: 11 pages, Latex, corrected typo

### Analytical challenges of glycosaminoglycans at biological interfaces

The analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a challenging task due to their high structural heterogeneity, which results in diverse GAG chains with similar chemical properties. Simultaneously, it is of high importance to understand their role and behavior in biological systems. It has been known for decades now that GAGs can interact with lipid molecules and thus contribute to the onset of atherosclerosis, but their interactions at and with biological interfaces, such as the cell membrane, are yet to be revealed. Here, analytical approaches that could yield important knowledge on the GAG-cell membrane interactions as well as the synthetic and analytical advances that make their study possible are discussed. Due to recent developments in laser technology, we particularly focus on nonlinear spectroscopic methods, especially vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy, which has the potential to unravel the structural complexity of heterogeneous biological interfaces in contact with GAGs, in situ and in real time

### Integer Partitions and Exclusion Statistics

We provide a combinatorial description of exclusion statistics in terms of
minimal difference $p$ partitions. We compute the probability distribution of
the number of parts in a random minimal $p$ partition. It is shown that the
bosonic point $p=0$ is a repulsive fixed point for which the limiting
distribution has a Gumbel form. For all positive $p$ the distribution is shown
to be Gaussian.Comment: 16 pages, 4 .eps figures include

### Falloff of the Weyl scalars in binary black hole spacetimes

The peeling theorem of general relativity predicts that the Weyl curvature
scalars Psi_n (n=0...4), when constructed from a suitable null tetrad in an
asymptotically flat spacetime, fall off asymptotically as r^(n-5) along
outgoing radial null geodesics. This leads to the interpretation of Psi_4 as
outgoing gravitational radiation at large distances from the source. We have
performed numerical simulations in full general relativity of a binary black
hole inspiral and merger, and have computed the Weyl scalars in the standard
tetrad used in numerical relativity. In contrast with previous results, we
observe that all the Weyl scalars fall off according to the predictions of the
theorem.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, published versio

### Simple Analytic Models of Gravitational Collapse

Most general relativity textbooks devote considerable space to the simplest
example of a black hole containing a singularity, the Schwarzschild geometry.
However only a few discuss the dynamical process of gravitational collapse, by
which black holes and singularities form. We present here two types of analytic
models for this process, which we believe are the simplest available; the first
involves collapsing spherical shells of light, analyzed mainly in
Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates; the second involves collapsing spheres
filled with a perfect fluid, analyzed mainly in Painleve-Gullstrand
coordinates. Our main goal is pedagogical simplicity and algebraic
completeness, but we also present some results that we believe are new, such as
the collapse of a light shell in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.Comment: Submitted to American Journal of Physic

### You Can't Get Through Szekeres Wormholes - or - Regularity, Topology and Causality in Quasi-Spherical Szekeres Models

The spherically symmetric dust model of Lemaitre-Tolman can describe
wormholes, but the causal communication between the two asymptotic regions
through the neck is even less than in the vacuum
(Schwarzschild-Kruskal-Szekeres) case. We investigate the anisotropic
generalisation of the wormhole topology in the Szekeres model. The function
E(r, p, q) describes the deviation from spherical symmetry if \partial_r E \neq
0, but this requires the mass to be increasing with radius, \partial_r M > 0,
i.e. non-zero density. We investigate the geometrical relations between the
mass dipole and the locii of apparent horizon and of shell-crossings. We
present the various conditions that ensure physically reasonable
quasi-spherical models, including a regular origin, regular maxima and minima
in the spatial sections, and the absence of shell-crossings. We show that
physically reasonable values of \partial_r E \neq 0 cannot compensate for the
effects of \partial_r M > 0 in any direction, so that communication through the
neck is still worse than the vacuum.
We also show that a handle topology cannot be created by identifying
hypersufaces in the two asymptotic regions on either side of a wormhole, unless
a surface layer is allowed at the junction. This impossibility includes the
Schwarzschild-Kruskal-Szekeres case.Comment: zip file with LaTeX text + 6 figures (.eps & .ps). 47 pages. Second
replacement corrects some minor errors and typos. (First replacement prints
better on US letter size paper.

### Some notes on the Kruskal - Szekeres completion

The Kruskal - Szekeres (KS) completion of the Schwarzschild spacetime is open
to Synge's methodological criticism that the KS procedure generates "good"
coordinates from "bad". This is addressed here in two ways: First I generate
the KS coordinates from Israel coordinates, which are also "good", and then I
generate the KS coordinates directly from a streamlined integration of the
Einstein equations.Comment: One typo correcte

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