15 research outputs found

    Vol使ga 脤vanova, Asab矛sty芒 arh矛vy Belarus矛 kanca XVIII鈥搉a膷. XXI st., M矛nsk 2014, ss. 403.

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    Vol使ga 脤vanova, Asab矛sty芒 arh矛vy Belarus矛 kanca XVIII鈥搉a膷. XXI st., M矛nsk 2014, ss. 403

    Archiwa hetman贸w koronnych. Poj臋cie, charakter i typologia dokumentacji

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    Adam S臋dziw贸j Archives of great marshals (hetmani wielcy) and field marshals (hetmani polni) of the Polish Crown and of the Great Duchy of Lithuania functioned within an organisational framework very different to archives of other ministerial offices within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Marshals' archives should be regarded as belonging to private archives and, to be more specific, as fragments of archives belonging to clans and families from which marshals descended. The documents written by marshals while they were in office were considered their private property and they were entered into archives as their personal, private files. This is how a paradox occured because documents written by a person holding one of the most important offices in the country, and who was often seen as dangerous for the nobility's and the ruler's own interests and for the country's security, could not be made known to the public and existed beyond any control. Various documents survived amongst the archives of the marshals of the Polish Crown, different in terms of form, sender and subject matter. The first criterion that we can adopt while characterising the documentation found in marshals' archives is its form. Here, the first place definitely takes correspondence, followed by documents set out in tabular form, case files, books, and finally documents. Other criterion which can be applied is the sender and the addressee. According to this criterion, the documents can be divided into these incoming, addressed to marshal or people close to him (e.g. people working in his office), and these outgoing, written by marshal or people working with him. Another criterion used for typology of documentation found in marshals' archives is the subject matter, usually dependent of the function of marshal of the Polish Crown. And so the documents can be divided into the following categories: military, financial, judicial, diplomatic and private (these include documents related to the office held but referring directly to marshal, e.g. papers appointing to the office of marshal, documentation regarding remuneration, correspondence). Taking into consideration the fisical form in which the documents can be found at the moment, we can describe them as loose, glued or bound together. Certainly, all those forms could well be found in the past but it is important to remeber that the condition that the documents are in at present does not always correspond to their original form. They were usually produced as loose documents and were later bound into fascicles.Archiwa hetman贸w wielkich i polnych, zar贸wno koronnych jak i litewskieh, nigdy nie funkcjonowa艂y w ramach organizacyjnych cho膰by zbli偶onych do archiw贸w innych urz臋d贸w ministerialnych Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narod贸w. Pozostaje wi臋c uznanie archiw贸w hetma艅skich za cz臋艣膰 archiw贸w prywatnych, a dok艂adniej m贸wi膮c za fragmenty zasob贸w archiw贸w rodowych i rodzinnych, z kt贸rych wywodzili si臋 hetmani. Akta, kt贸re powstawa艂y w czasie sprawowania urz臋du przez poszczeg贸lnych hetman贸w, traktowane by艂y jako ich w艂asno艣膰 prywatna i jako akta osobiste, prywatne, wchodzi艂y do zasob贸w ich archiw贸w. W ten spos贸b wytworzy艂a si臋 dosy膰 paradoksalna sytuacja, kiedy to dokumentacja jednego z najwa偶niejszych urz臋d贸w w pa艅stwie, urz臋du, w kt贸rym nierzadko spo艂ecze艅stwo szlacheckie i osoba panuj膮cego widzia艂y zagro偶enie dla swoich interes贸w i bezpiecze艅stwa pa艅stwa, znalaz艂a si臋 poza publicznym obiegiem i kontrol膮. W archiwach hetman贸w koronnych zachowa艂a si臋 bardzo r贸偶norodna dokumentacja archiwalna zar贸wno pod wzgl臋dem formalnym, kancelaryjnym, jak i merytorycznym. Pierwszym kryterium jakie mo偶na przyj膮膰 okre艣laj膮c dokumentacj臋 wyst臋puj膮c膮 w archiwach hetma艅skich to jej posta膰 kancelaryjna. Tutaj zdecydowanie na pierwsze miejsce wysuwa si臋 korespondencja, nast臋pnie zestawienia tabelaryczne, akta spraw, ksi臋gi, w ko艅cu dokumenty. Innym kryterium jakie mo偶na zastosowa膰 przy klasyfikacji hetma艅skich archiwali贸w to zasada przynale偶no艣ci kancelaryjnej. Wed艂ug niej mo偶na wyr贸偶ni膰 archiwalia jakie trafi艂y do archiwum z zewn膮trz, a ich adresatem by艂 hetman, ewentualnie osoby z nim blisko zwi膮zane (chocia偶by pracownicy kancelarii), drug膮 grup臋 stanowi膮 archiwalia wytworzone przez hetmana lub jego otoczenie. Kolejnym kryterium jakie mo偶na zastosowa膰 w typologii dokumentacji archiwalnej wyst臋puj膮cej w zasobach archiw贸w hetma艅skich to zasada ich przedmiotowo艣ci, wynikaj膮ca z funkcji hetman贸w koronnych. Mo偶na podzieli膰 j膮 na dokumentacj臋 o charakterze: wojskowym, finansowym, s膮downiczym, dyplomatycznym oraz prywatnym (to znaczy odnosz膮c膮 si臋 bezpo艣rednio do osoby hetmana, zwi膮zan膮 jednak r贸wnie偶 ze sprawowanym urz臋dem, np. akty nominacyjne na urz臋dy hetma艅skie, dokumentacja zwi膮zana z ich uposa偶eniem, korespondencja). Bior膮c pod uwag臋 kryterium formalne, posta膰 fizyczn膮 pod jak膮 wyst臋puje w chwili obecnej dokumentacja z hetma艅skich archiw贸w, spotka膰 mo偶na si臋 z: aktami lu藕nymi, klejonymi i zszywanymi. Oczywi艣cie wszystkie wy偶ej wymienione formy wyst臋powa艂y r贸wnie偶 wsp贸艂cze艣nie, cho膰 wiadomo, 偶e nie zawsze forma obecna jest postaci膮 oryginaln膮. Pierwotnie najcz臋艣ciej mia艂a ona posta膰 luz贸w, kt贸re 艂膮czono w wi膮zki i fascyku艂y

    呕egli艅ska, Anna. Finckensteinowie wschodniopruscy i ich archiwa. Gda艅sk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gda艅skiego, 2021.

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    Review: 呕egli艅ska, Anna. Finckensteinowie wschodniopruscy i ich archiwa. Gda艅sk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gda艅skiego, 2021.Recenzja: 呕egli艅ska, Anna. Finckensteinowie wschodniopruscy i ich archiwa. Gda艅sk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gda艅skiego, 2021

    Materia艂y do przewodnika po archiwaliach hetman贸w koronnych w zasobach archiwalnych i zbiorach bibliotecznych

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    This article is an overview of archival collections with provenance of hetman's archives, but physically separated into collections in archives and libraries across Poland (Krak贸w, K贸rnik, 艁贸d藕, Pozna艅, Warszawa) and also Ukraine (Kiev, Lviv). Research, which later became an inspiration for this overview, has been conducted mainly in the early 90s. In the light of the above, this article does not claim to be called a "guide" to the royalhetmans' archives of the sixteenth through to the eighteenth century, but it could be viewed as an outline of such archival finding aid. This overview focuses on characteristics of different types of archival material, which author considered integrally connected to holding of an office of hetman, i.e.: personal, administrative and military, judiciary, financial, and also correspondence. Qualification criteria may raise some concerns, because selection of archives is subjective by nature, but also because in the discussed time period there was social consensus on the fact that one's private life and public sphere would overlap. Most of the archival materials used in this study comes from the hetman's archives of the eighteenth century (Jan Clement Branicki's; Franciszek Ksawery Branicki's; Stanis艂aw Mateusz, Wac艂aw, Seweryn Rzewuski's and Adam Miko艂aj Sieniawski's). Eighteen century is considered to be the peak of development of private archives, which - without a doubt - had great impact on the preservation of hetman's archives of that period. Moreover, the fact that there is significantly larger collection of hetman's archives of that period, compared to previous two centuries, is the result of the hetman's office having a special place within the political system of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.Tekst jest przegl膮dem materia艂贸w archiwalnych pochodz膮cych z archiw贸w hetman贸w koronnych, przechowywanych obecnie w zasobach archiwalnych i zbiorach bibliotecznych na terenie Polski (Krak贸w, K贸rnik, 艁贸d藕, Pozna艅, Warszawa) i Ukrainy (Kij贸w, Lw贸w). Publikacja nie jest przewodnikiem po archiwach hetman贸w koronnych z okresu XVI鈥揦VIII w., niemniej stanowi mocny fundament do stworzenia tego rodzaju pomocy archiwalnej. Przegl膮d zawiera charakterystyk臋 r贸偶nych rodzaj贸w archiwali贸w, kt贸re autor uzna艂 za integralnie zwi膮zane ze sprawowaniem urz臋d贸w hetma艅skich (akta osobiste, administracyjno-wojskowe, jurysdykcyjne, finansowe, korespondencja). Wi臋kszo艣膰 opisanych tu materia艂贸w archiwalnych pochodzi z XVIII w, z archiw贸w nast臋puj膮cych hetman贸w koronnych: Jana Klemensa Branickiego, Franciszka Ksawerego Branickiego, Stanis艂awa Mateusza, Wac艂awa, Seweryna Rzewuskich i Adama Miko艂aja Sieniawskiego

    Organizacja sp艂awu w dobrach kasztelanowej krakowskiej Izabeli z Poniatowskich Branickiej

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    This article is devoted to the organisation of river floating in the estates of the Branicki family (coat-of-arms Gryf), managed from 1771 by Izabela Branicka n茅e Poniatowska, widow of the castellan of Krak贸w and Great Hetman of the Crown Jan Klemens. The article is based on archival sources from the Roskie Archive fonds stored in the holdings of the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw. Particularly important in the findings of the text is the correspondence from the circle of Izabela Branicka's clerks and officials involved in the administration of her landed estates. The issue of floating was discussed in several areas, including the characteristics of: waterways and ports used by the Branicka's flotilla, directions of river transport and its volume, management of the flotilla in terms of froth and renting ships and boats, the state of the flotilla in terms of construction, repairs and purchase of vessels forming it, crews of ships and boats 鈥 including the number of personnel, functions, maintenance costs, and finally the course of floating and factors affecting it.Artyku艂 po艣wi臋cony jest organizacji sp艂awu rzecznego w dobrach Branickich h. Gryf, zarz膮dzanych od 1771 r. przez Izabel臋 z Poniatowskich Branick膮, wdow臋 po kasztelanie krakowskim i hetmanie wielkim koronnym Janie Klemensie. Podstaw膮 藕r贸d艂ow膮 artyku艂u s膮 藕r贸d艂a archiwalne z zespo艂u archiwalnego Archiwum Roskie przechowywanego w zasobie Archiwum G艂贸wnego Akt Dawnych w Warszawie. Szczeg贸lnie istotn膮 w ustaleniach zawartych w tek艣cie jego cz臋艣ci膮 jest korespondencja z kr臋gu urz臋dnik贸w i oficjalist贸w Izabeli Branickiej zaanga偶owanych w administracj臋 jej maj臋tno艣ci ziemskich. Problematyk臋 sp艂awu om贸wiono w ramach kilku obszar贸w, w艣r贸d kt贸rych znalaz艂a si臋 charakterystyka: szlak贸w wodnych i port贸w eksploatowanych przez flotyll臋 Branickiej, kierunk贸w transportu rzecznego i jego wielko艣ci, zarz膮dzania flotyll膮 w zakresie frochtowania i wynajmu statk贸w i 艂odzi, stanu flotylli w zakresie budowy, remont贸w i zakupu jednostek j膮 tworz膮cych, za艂贸g statk贸w i 艂odzi 鈥 z uwzgl臋dnieniem stanu osobowego, funkcji, koszt贸w utrzymania, w ko艅cu przebiegu sp艂awu i czynnik贸w na艅 wp艂ywaj膮cych

    Analiza wp艂ywu budowy i eksploatacji infrastruktury drogowej na czynniki abiotyczne i biotyczne 艣rodowiska

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    The expansion of the road network in Poland and in world constitutes a considerable risk for the natural environment, this article is showing the most important effects of road investments, for example: pollutants of atmospheric air, the noise and vibrations, pollutants of waters and soils, the fragmentation of the space and the decline of the landscape. Everything is leading it for destroying the environment in which we live. Describing all threats to the environment with themselves a structure and an exploitation of roads are bringing which, is practically impossible, the man in the last years very much is interfering in the nature, instead of to protect it for next generations, therefore designers and entrepreneurs should concentrate on eliminating negative effects of construction and the more late exploitation of roads and for improvement in their technical state

    Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries

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    A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371鈥7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature鈥揹epth profiles analysed before. Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January鈥揂pril air temperature. The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530鈥90, 1656鈥70 (the warmest period), 1820鈥50, 1910鈥40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January鈥揂pril occurred in the following periods: 1600鈥50, 1760鈥75, 1800鈥15, 1880鈥1900, and 1950鈥80. Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December鈥揊ebruary) and summer (June鈥揂ugust) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, 鈥榟istorical鈥 summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate in Poland was greater than in the 20th century. GST reconstructions show that its average pre-instrumental level (1500鈥1778) is about 0.9鈥1.5 掳C lower than the mean air temperature for the period 1951鈥81. Lower amplitude of GST warming (0.9 卤 0.1 掳C) results from the individual and simultaneous inversions of well temperature data using the FSI method. A very good correspondence of the results has been found between series of annual mean GSTs from the FSI method and mean seasonal air temperatures reconstructed using documentary evidence

    Ups and downs of Stanislaw Gocza艂kowski, administrator and liegeman of Jan Klemens Branicki in the years 1760鈥1767

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    The article describes activities of Stanis艂aw Gocza艂kowski, coat of arms Poraj (d. 1787/88) that were performed in favor of Jan Klemens Branicki, Hetman and Castellan of Krak贸w. It presents the liege - liegeman relation through over 10 years (1760鈥1771). Gocza艂kowski is not widely known in the literature, with the exception of his activities during the initial period of the Confederation of Bar (1768鈥1772) in Krak贸w and the Krak贸w province. Gocza艂kowski came from a rather not wealthy nobility of Wielkopolska. His service started in 1760 at the court of Jan Klemens Branicki, one of the most powerful lords of Poland what gave him a chance for social advancement and wealth. Year 1762 influenced the relations between Gocza艂kowski and Branicki and bound Gocza艂kowski for life with the province of Krak贸w. Gocza艂kowski represented the hetman while conclusion of a compromise with J贸zef Stadnicki, tenant of Branicki鈥檚 ancestral lands of Branice and Ruszcza near Krak贸w. It was an extremely active period in his life and from that time survived the most of his letters to Branicki. They contained details on matters of legal and property-related economic issues and dispute and a number of things and people associated with Jan Klemens Branicki. After the conclusion of compromise with Stadnicki, Gocza艂kowski became the tenant of Branice and Ruszcza. Soon it led to a deterioration of his relations with Branicki. Moreover, on behalf of Branicki Gocza艂kowski managed goods of Krak贸w castellany, as Castellan of Krak贸w. For this reason he used a title of burgrave of My艣lenice. Until the death of Branicki (d. 1771) Gocza艂kowski took care of issues in his favor of a personal and public nature. Additionally, after the death of Branicki Gocza艂kowski entered in the legal and financial dispute with his wife Izabela Branicka. Despite this, he remained with her in lively contacts till the end of his life

    A case of unrequited friendship 鈥 relations of Burgrave of Cracow Stanis艂aw Gocza艂kowski with Izabela Branicka in 1771鈥1786

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    The article is a continuation of a paper text devoted to activity of Stanis艂aw Gocza艂kowski, clerk of Grand Crown Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki (Miscellanea Historico-Archivistica, vol. 23). This paper presents Gocza艂kowski鈥檚 activity from the perspective of his relations with court of Izabela Branicka, Jan Klemens鈥檚 widow, in 1771鈥1786. Gocza艂kowski has remained in her service for a number of years, performing similar functions as he did during Branicki鈥檚 lifetime. He remained a client of Branicka, in a formal relationship, as until 1773 he administered and leased her land in Cracow voivodship. Possibly thanks to those relations with Branickis court, Gocza艂kowski was able to increase his social standing and wealth. He became a landowner in Cracow voivodship, achieving the post of Burgrave of Cracow in 1780. After that, he entered into a property dispute with Branicka, and in 1773 terminated a formal dependence on her. Despite that, until the end of his life he solicited her patronage. Gocza艂kowski鈥檚 frequent efforts to secure public offi ces and functions, mostly in Cracow voivodship, he supported by patronage of Branicka and her milieu, in particular the Voivode of Masovia Andrzej Mokronowski, and her personal secretary Wojciech Makomaski. However, Gocza艂kowski鈥檚 career, which ended in a not particularly prestigious position of Burgrave of Cracow, shows that his friendship with Branicka was 鈥渦nwelcome鈥 and her supposed patronage was more his wishful thinking than actual fact. Source basis of the publication are letters from Roskie Archive, correspondence series, preserved in Central Archive of Historical Records (AGAD) in Warsaw.Artyku艂 jest kontynuacj膮 tekstu po艣wi臋conego dzia艂alno艣ci Stanis艂awa Gocza艂kowskiego, oficjalisty hetmana wielkiego koronnego Jana Klemensa Branickiego (Miscellanea Historico-Archivistica, t. 23). Tym razem przedstawiono dzia艂alno艣膰 Gocza艂kowskiego przez pryzmat jego relacji zachodz膮cych w latach 1771鈥1786 z dworem Izabeli Branickiej, wdowy po Janie Klemensie. Gocza艂kowski przez kilka lat pozostawa艂 na jej us艂ugach, wykonuj膮c podobne funkcje, jak za 偶ycia Branickiego. Pozostawa艂 z Branick膮 w stosunkach klientalnych, o charakterze formalnym, gdy偶 do 1773 r. administrowa艂 i dzier偶awi艂 jej dobra w wojew贸dztwie krakowskim. Zapewne dzi臋ki tym relacjom z dworem Branickich uda艂o si臋 Gocza艂kowskiemu podnie艣膰 pozycj臋 maj膮tkow膮 i status spo艂eczny. Sta艂 si臋 posesjonatem w wojew贸dztwie krakowskim osi膮gaj膮c urz膮d burgrabiego krakowskiego w 1780 r. P贸藕niej wszed艂 z Branic膮 w sp贸r prawnomaj膮tkowy, a w 1773 r. zerwa艂 formaln膮 zale偶no艣膰 od niej. Mimo to do ko艅ca 偶ycia stara艂 si臋 o jej protekcj臋. Cz臋ste ubieganie si臋 Gocza艂kowskiego o urz臋dy i funkcje publiczne, g艂贸wnie w wojew贸dztwie krakowskim, stara艂 si臋 protekcj膮 Branickiej i jej otoczenia, szczeg贸lnie wojewody mazowieckiego Andrzeja Mokronowskiego, a tak偶e jej osobistego sekretarza Wojciecha Makomaskiego. Kariera Gocza艂kowskiego, zako艅czona na niezbyt presti偶owym urz臋dzie burgrabiego krakowskiego, pokazuje jednak, 偶e z Branick膮 艂膮czy艂a go 鈥瀗iechciana鈥 przyja藕艅, a patronat Branickiej mia艂 raczej charakter 偶yczeniowy i to tylko ze strony Gocza艂kowskiego. Podstaw膮 藕r贸d艂ow膮 publikacji s膮 listy z Archiwum Roskiego, serii korespondencja, przechowywanego w AGAD w Warszawie

    Archives of marshals of the Polish Crown. Definition, characteristics and typology of the documents

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    Adam S臋dziw贸j Archives of great marshals (hetmani wielcy) and field marshals (hetmani polni) of the Polish Crown and of the Great Duchy of Lithuania functioned within an organisational framework very different to archives of other ministerial offices within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Marshals' archives should be regarded as belonging to private archives and, to be more specific, as fragments of archives belonging to clans and families from which marshals descended. The documents written by marshals while they were in office were considered their private property and they were entered into archives as their personal, private files. This is how a paradox occured because documents written by a person holding one of the most important offices in the country, and who was often seen as dangerous for the nobility's and the ruler's own interests and for the country's security, could not be made known to the public and existed beyond any control. Various documents survived amongst the archives of the marshals of the Polish Crown, different in terms of form, sender and subject matter. The first criterion that we can adopt while characterising the documentation found in marshals' archives is its form. Here, the first place definitely takes correspondence, followed by documents set out in tabular form, case files, books, and finally documents. Other criterion which can be applied is the sender and the addressee. According to this criterion, the documents can be divided into these incoming, addressed to marshal or people close to him (e.g. people working in his office), and these outgoing, written by marshal or people working with him. Another criterion used for typology of documentation found in marshals' archives is the subject matter, usually dependent of the function of marshal of the Polish Crown. And so the documents can be divided into the following categories: military, financial, judicial, diplomatic and private (these include documents related to the office held but referring directly to marshal, e.g. papers appointing to the office of marshal, documentation regarding remuneration, correspondence). Taking into consideration the fisical form in which the documents can be found at the moment, we can describe them as loose, glued or bound together. Certainly, all those forms could well be found in the past but it is important to remeber that the condition that the documents are in at present does not always correspond to their original form. They were usually produced as loose documents and were later bound into fascicles.</span
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