3,889 research outputs found

### Kertesz on Fat Graphs?

The identification of phase transition points, beta_c, with the percolation
thresholds of suitably defined clusters of spins has proved immensely fruitful
in many areas of statistical mechanics. Some time ago Kertesz suggested that
such percolation thresholds for models defined in field might also have
measurable physical consequences for regions of the phase diagram below beta_c,
giving rise to a ``Kertesz line'' running between beta_c and the bond
percolation threshold, beta_p, in the M, beta plane.
Although no thermodynamic singularities were associated with this line it
could still be divined by looking for a change in the behaviour of high-field
series for quantities such as the free energy or magnetisation. Adler and
Stauffer did precisely this with some pre-existing series for the regular
square lattice and simple cubic lattice Ising models and did, indeed, find
evidence for such a change in high-field series around beta_p. Since there is a
general dearth of high-field series there has been no other work along these
lines.
In this paper we use the solution of the Ising model in field on planar
random graphs by Boulatov and Kazakov to carry out a similar exercise for the
Ising model on random graphs (i.e. coupled to 2D quantum gravity). We generate
a high-field series for the Ising model on $\Phi^4$ random graphs and examine
its behaviour for evidence of a Kertesz line

### The effects of space radiation on a chemically modified graphite-epoxy composite material

The effects of the space environment on the engineering properties and chemistry of a chemically modified T300/934 graphite-epoxy composite system are characterized. The material was subjected to 1.0 x 10 to the 10th power rads of 1.0 MeV electron irradiation under vacuum to simulate 30 years in geosynchronous earth orbit. Monotonic tension tests were performed at room temperature (75 F/24 C) and elevated temperature (250 F/121 C) on 4-ply unidirectional laminates. From these tests, inplane engineering and strength properties (E sub 1, E sub 2, Nu sub 12, G sub 12, X sub T, Y sub T) were determined. Cyclic tests were also performed to characterize energy dissipation changes due to irradiation and elevated temperature. Large diameter graphite fibers were tested to determine the effects of radiation on their stiffness and strength. No significant changes were observed. Dynamic-mechanical analysis demonstrated that the glass transition temperature was reduced by 50 F(28 C) after irradiation. Thermomechanical analysis showed the occurrence of volatile products generated upon heating of the irradiated material. The chemical modification of the epoxy did not aid in producing a material which was more radiation resistant than the standard T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. Irradiation was found to cause crosslinking and chain scission in the polymer. The latter produced low molecular weight products which plasticize the material at elevated temperatures and cause apparent material stiffening at low stresses at room temperature

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### Simulation and Measurement of Transient Fluid Phenomena within Diesel Injection

Rail pressures of modern diesel fuel injection systems have increased significantly over recent years, greatly improving atomisation of the main fuel injection event and air utilisation of the combustion process. Continued improvement in controlling the process of introducing fuel into the cylinder has led to focussing on fluid phenomena related to transient response. High-speed microscopy has been employed to visualise the detailed fluid dynamics around the near nozzle region of an automotive diesel fuel injector, during the opening, closing and post injection events. Complementary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of the liquid and gas phases during these highly transient events, including an assessment of close-coupled injections. Microscopic imaging shows the development of a plug flow in the initial stages of injection, with rapid transition into a primary breakup regime, transitioning to a finely atomised spray and subsequent vaporisation of the fuel. During closuring of the injector the spray collapses, with evidence of swirling breakup structures together with unstable ligaments of fuel breaking into large slow-moving droplets. This leads to sub-optimal combustion in the developing flame fronts established by the earlier, more fully-developed spray. The simulation results predict these observed phenomena, including injector surface wetting as a result of large slow-moving droplets and post-injection discharge of liquid fuel. This work suggests that post-injection discharges of fuel play a part in the mechanism of the initial formation, and subsequent accumulation of deposits on the exterior surface of the injector. For multiple injections, opening events are influenced by the dynamics of the previous injection closure; these phenomena have been investigated within the simulations

### Complex-Temperature Singularities in the $d=2$ Ising Model. III. Honeycomb Lattice

We study complex-temperature properties of the uniform and staggered
susceptibilities $\chi$ and $\chi^{(a)}$ of the Ising model on the honeycomb
lattice. From an analysis of low-temperature series expansions, we find
evidence that $\chi$ and $\chi^{(a)}$ both have divergent singularities at the
point $z=-1 \equiv z_{\ell}$ (where $z=e^{-2K}$), with exponents
$\gamma_{\ell}'= \gamma_{\ell,a}'=5/2$. The critical amplitudes at this
singularity are calculated. Using exact results, we extract the behaviour of
the magnetisation $M$ and specific heat $C$ at complex-temperature
singularities. We find that, in addition to its zero at the physical critical
point, $M$ diverges at $z=-1$ with exponent $\beta_{\ell}=-1/4$, vanishes
continuously at $z=\pm i$ with exponent $\beta_s=3/8$, and vanishes
discontinuously elsewhere along the boundary of the complex-temperature
ferromagnetic phase. $C$ diverges at $z=-1$ with exponent $\alpha_{\ell}'=2$
and at $v=\pm i/\sqrt{3}$ (where $v = \tanh K$) with exponent $\alpha_e=1$, and
diverges logarithmically at $z=\pm i$. We find that the exponent relation
$\alpha'+2\beta+\gamma'=2$ is violated at $z=-1$; the right-hand side is 4
rather than 2. The connections of these results with complex-temperature
properties of the Ising model on the triangular lattice are discussed.Comment: 22 pages, latex, figures appended after the end of the text as a
compressed, uuencoded postscript fil

### Evolution of surname distribution under gender-equality measurements

We consider a model for the evolution of the surnames distribution under a
gender-equality measurement presently discussed in the Spanish parliament (the
children take the surname of the father or the mother according to alphabetical
order). We quantify how this would bias the alphabetical distribution of
surnames, and analyze its effect on the present distribution of the surnames in
Spain

### Series expansions without diagrams

We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low and high
temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear
combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with
diagramatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach
using the Ising model and generate low temperature series in up to five
dimensions and high temperature series in three dimensions. The method is
general and can be applied to any discrete model. We describe how it would work
for Potts models.Comment: 24 pages, IASSNS-HEP-93/1

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