667 research outputs found

    Institutional Framework and Poverty: A Transition Economy Perspective

    Get PDF
    This paper focuses on the role of institutions in poverty alleviation, where both poverty and institutions are interpreted broadly. The broadening of the poverty notion is important at least from the policy perspective. Even if one were convinced that higher growth would reduce income poverty to an acceptable margin, there appears to be little concrete policy measures that one may offer so as to harness greater growth. Besides, the weight of the empirical evidence to date, if not squarely founded on the transition economies of the EEFSU region, is that reducing average poverty is not enough. Existing and possibly rising inequality would ensure that a great many would fall through the cracks, and not benefit from high growth, even if that was achievable. The non-income elements of poverty, on the other hand, are more directly open to influence by policy interventions such as the easing of micro credit and other public and private ventures in health, sanitation, literacy and numeracy fronts. Finally the modest amount of information available at our disposal indicates that the underlying strength of the institutions (economic, political and social) is possibly the single most agent of significance to bring about the alleviation of non-income poverty. There is a further possibility that the same institutional forces would also materially affect the income measure of poverty as well in a discernible fashion.

    Institutional Framework and Poverty: A Transition Economy Perspective

    Get PDF
    Institutions, Poverty reduction, Growth

    Measuring the Social Discount Rate under Uncertainty: A Methodology and Application

    Get PDF
    It is well recognised that the issue of the social rate of discount applies only to the gains from public investment that accrues to the public sector. When it comes to measurement, however, there is a problem: public investment in infrastructure and the like do not usually yield direct pecuniary returns to the public exchequer. Instead public capital may be plausibly argued to lead to increases in factor productivity in the private economy. This paper observes that government typically shares in the latter gains via the collection of tax revenues. Hence to the extent the risk discount rate should reflect the co-variability between the return from public investment and that of the market, we are led to measuring the risk premium implicit in various revenue flows. We apply the above methodology to the United States budget data for the period, 1950-2000, and show that the social risk premium is relatively small vis-à-vis the market. Consequently, the use of the risk free rate as the correct risk discount rate for public sector investment would involve only a minor error. The intuition here is that the portfolio of assets embedded in the state’s revenue claims provides additional diversification than is available through financial markets. Therefore, even investors holding well-diversified stock portfolios may legitimately view claims on state revenue as vehicles for further risk shifting.public discount rate, risk premium, aggregate risks, correlated risks, public investment

    Inequality, Well-being and Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Get PDF
    This paper focuses on the role of “institutions” in the fight against poverty and inequality. Our view of institutions encompasses formal rules designed by polity (including those in the legal and economics sphere such as rules of property rights, contracts and liabilities) as well as informal rules (usually labelled social capital) that have emerged over the history of one’s civilisation. The inclusion of health, nutrition, and literacy indicators in defining well-being (or, non-income poverty à la capability approach of Amartya Sen) allows a rich discussion of policy interventions. While both orientations as to the concepts of poverty, inequality and institutions are expounded on a priori reasoning, empirical analysis with LAC data prove rewarding. Quality of institutions (measured by a composite variable called institutional capital, IC) turns out to be a key factor explaining well-being. Further where the level of income is also important to the explanation, the quantitative role of the institutional factor dominates that of the income variable. Within IC, political stability (or lack of violence) appeared to provide the more precise estimates in every case. Consequently we argue that the foremost policy interventions ought to be in the areas of building both adequate formal institutions, as well as creating an enabling environment for the informal institutions (such as social capital) to flourish and find their own roots. The principal focus of the policy debate must centre on the mutual interaction of market as well as non-market institutions in reducing poverty broadly speaking

    Case of the month

    Get PDF
    A 46 year old female, with a past medical history of hypertension and hypothyroidism, presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain. The pain was described as epigastric, sharp, 7/10 and radiating around to the back, bilaterally. The symptoms started approximately 2 days prior to presentation and had been unrelenting in severity and quality.Includes bibliographical reference

    Choice of Tax Base Revisited: Cash Flow vs. Prepayment Approaches to Consumption Taxation

    Get PDF
    This paper re-examines the issues involved in the design of a direct tax on consumption, an idea that has received a fair degree of acceptance in the transition countries over the past decade (e.g., tax reforms in Croatia and Moldova). First we argue that on the subject of equivalence among a set of taxes, the only meaningful comparison is along the ex-ante concept of equivalence, and not ex-post. The latter as we shall see requires highly implausible, and often arbitrary, choice scenarios. We carry out the analysis in a variety of models starting with the two-period consumption-saving choice under full certainty. However, a good part of the discussion is carried out where the portfolio choice behaviour is embedded in an intertemporal savings model that has been widely discussed in the literature. We then take up more complete (and necessarily more complex) choice situations for examination. Indeed the first of two variations of the above is a model where individuals make work-leisure (for a given skill level) as well as the safe-risky asset choice. The last is of risky human capital choice, where the physical investment is restricted to a single non-risky asset. For the purposes of the paper, the models are very general, and the precise choice context is open to wider interpretations than how they are actually phrased. In spite of our preoccupation with the efficiency aspects, we are interested in other important issues of equity, and those of an administrative nature. But our remarks on the latter fronts are limited to the insight that we directly gain from the analytics.tax reform in transition countries, cash-flow tax, prepayment tax, ex-ante and ex-post equity, risk sharing, and tax reform

    From the journals

    Get PDF
    Author states, "I have recently come across the following articles that should be of interest to Hospitalists.

    The Efficiency Loss of Capital Income Taxation under Imperfect Loss Offset Provisions

    Get PDF
    The importance of capital loss offset provisions in a world of risk is well documented in the tax literature. However, the potential deadweight losses owing to imperfect offset has not been fully explored. This paper develops a framework whereby that investigation can be carried out and utilizes numerical simulations to investigate the size of potential losses. Results show that when the government and private sector are equally efficient in handling market risk, welfare losses owing to the absence of offset provisions could be substantial. Under plausible assumptions about attitudes towards risk and time preference, and with a capital income tax rate of forty percent, over sixty cents per dollar of tax revenue raised would be dissipated. In contrast, full loss offset would reduce that loss to approximately fourteen cents.capital income taxation, uncertainty, deadweight loss, loss offset provisions

    Dealing with hypertensive urgencies

    Get PDF
    Patients presenting with severe hypertension can often be alarming for house officers and family members. Systolic blood pressures > 180 mm Hg, with or without a diastolic blood pressure >120, have been known to progress to hypertensive emergencies.Includes bibliographical reference

    Worldwide variations in sex ratio of cancer incidence : temporal and geographic patterns

    Full text link
    Contexte: Les comparaisons internationales de taux d’incidence du cancer sont des sources importantes d’élĂ©ments pouvant aider Ă  gĂ©nĂ©rer des hypothĂšses en lien Ă  l’étiologie du cancer. Les estimations de la variation gĂ©ographique de l’incidence de cancer peuvent ĂȘtre compromises par des artefacts tels que l’inexactitude et le manque de donnĂ©es complĂštes portant sur l’incidence du cancer, parmi plusieurs autres. Ces artefacts associĂ©s aux taux d’incidence pourront mener Ă  des erreurs au niveau de l’interprĂ©tation et de la comparaison des tendances Ă  travers les registres de cancers. Le ratio des sexes (dĂ©fini comme le rapport du taux d’incidence de cancer masculin divisĂ© par le taux d'incidence fĂ©minin) est une mesure qui pourra ĂȘtre moins susceptible d’avoir des ambiguĂŻtĂ©s d’interprĂ©tation suite Ă  de tels artefacts, dans la mesure oĂč la mesure des cas de cancer est similaire chez les hommes et les femmes. Objectifs: L'objectif principal de cette Ă©tude sera donc de conclure quand aux causes qui pourront gĂ©nĂ©rer la variabilitĂ© dans le ratio des sexes pour des types de cancers spĂ©cifiques, Ă  travers temps et lieu, en gĂ©nĂ©rant des hypothĂšses. L’objectif secondaire sera d’explorer la mesure dans laquelle les inĂ©galitĂ©s de genre entre les pays peuvent fournir des indices sur la qualitĂ© des registres de cancer pour les types de cancer sĂ©lectionnĂ©s, Ă  l'aide du rapport des sexes. MĂ©thodes: L’incidence du cancer dans cinq continents (CI-5), une base de donnĂ©es de registres populationnels de cancer obtenue du Centre international de recherche sur le cancer (CIRC) de l’Organisation mondiale de la santĂ© (OMS), a Ă©tĂ© utilisĂ©e afin d'accĂ©der aux donnĂ©es d’incidence de 30 diffĂ©rents cancers durant 3 pĂ©riodes de temps (c'est-Ă -dire 1974-77, 1988-92 et 2003-07) provenant de 77, 142 et 281 registres sur le cancer. Des mĂ©thodes descriptives ont Ă©tĂ© utilisĂ©es, soit des modĂšles Ă  effets mixtes, pour l’étude des tendances temporelles et des variations gĂ©ographiques au niveau du ratio des sexes. Afin d’explorer le biais en lien au genre, les ratios des sexes pour les cancers du poumon, de la vessie, de l’Ɠsophage et du larynx ont Ă©tĂ© mis en concordance avec deux indices statistiques, Ă  savoir l’Indice d’inĂ©galitĂ© des genres de l’ONU et les estimations mondiales de prĂ©valence du tabagisme de l’OMS. RĂ©sultats: Les rĂ©sultats obtenus Ă  l'aide de modĂšles Ă  effets mixtes utilisant un nombre Ă©gal (soit 76) registres de cancer de longue durĂ©e pour chaque annĂ©e entre 1983 et 2007, aprĂšs avoir ajustĂ© le ratio des des sexes pour la variation gĂ©ographique, ont dĂ©montrĂ© que le cancer du poumon avait le plus haut ratio des sexes en moyenne lors de la premiĂšre annĂ©e («baseline») (soit 9.9), suivi de l’Ɠsophage (7.8), la vessie (5.1), le foie (3.8), le pancrĂ©as (2.1), le rein (1.9), la leucĂ©mie (1.8), le lymphome non hodgkinien (1.8), le cerveau (1.6), le rectum et l’anus (1.5), le cĂŽlon (1.2), les yeux (1.2), le mĂ©lanome de la peau (0.9), la vĂ©sicule biliaire (0.6) et la thyroĂŻde (0.5). Dans les registres de pays ayant une faible inĂ©galitĂ© entre les sexes et une prĂ©valence de tabagisme similaire chez les femmes et les hommes (la SuĂšde, la NorvĂšge et le Danemark), le ratio des sexes pour le cancer du poumon Ă©tait relativement bas (1.2, 1.3 et 1.6). D'un autre cĂŽtĂ© l’Espagne, tout en ayant une prĂ©valence similaire de tabagisme chez les hommes et les femmes, montrait un ratio des sexes inhabituellement haut pour le poumon (7.1) ainsi que pour d’autres cancers associĂ©s au tabagisme (vessie: 14.9, Ɠsophage: 10.7, larynx: 28.2). Les rĂ©sultats de cette Ă©tude tendent Ă  mettre en relief plusieurs types de cancer, notamment celui des reins pour lequel les facteurs de risques connus seront peu susceptibles de pouvoir expliquer pleinement le ratio masculin-fĂ©minin de presque 2:1, uniformĂ©ment stable Ă  travers le temps et les rĂ©gions. Conclusions: Les facteurs de risque Ă©tablis dans la littĂ©rature dont la prĂ©valence varie dans les deux sexes au niveau mondial, ne semblent pas pouvoir expliquer la stabilitĂ© du ratios des sexes pour le cancer du rein au cours des trois dĂ©cennies. Suite Ă  cette observation, nous avons Ă©mis l'hypothĂšse de certains facteurs endogĂšnes, tels que la gĂ©nĂ©tique ou la variance gĂ©nĂ©tique, pouvant ĂȘtre en mesure d’expliquer la stabilitĂ© du ratio des sexes pour ce cancer. Un autre type de cancer, le myĂ©lome multiple, s'est lui aussi avĂ©rĂ© stable Ă  travers le temps et l’espace (le rĂŽle de la vitamine D a Ă©tĂ© postulĂ©). Notre Ă©tude nous a permis d'identifier des lacunes au niveau de la comprĂ©hension des causes de cancer au sein des populations.Context: International comparisons of cancer incidence rates are important sources of evidence for generating hypotheses about cancer etiology. The estimates of geographic variation in cancer incidence can be compromised by artifacts such as imperfect accuracy and completeness of available cancer incidence data among several others. The artifacts associated with incidence rates, can be potentially misleading when interpreting and comparing trends across cancer registries. The Sex Ratio (defined as the male-to-female cancer incidence rate) is one measure that can be less susceptible to ambiguity of interpretations by these artifacts, provided that the ascertainment of cancer cases is similar in males and females. Objectives: Hence, the main aim of this study is to infer as to potential causes that drive sex ratio variability (i.e., the ratio of male to female incidence rates), of type specific cancers across time and geography, generating hypotheses. The secondary aim is to explore the extent to which country-level gender inequalities can provide clues on quality of cancer registries for selected cancer types through sex ratios. Methods: Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI-5), a database of population-based cancer registries obtained from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), was used to access incidence data on 30 different cancers in 3 time-periods (i.e., 1974-77; 1988-92 and 2003-07) from 77, 142 and 281 cancer registries. Descriptive methods were used with recourse to mixed-effect regression methods for studying temporal trends and geographic variations in sex ratios. To explore gender bias, sex ratios for cancers of lung, bladder, esophagus, and larynx were tallied with two statistics namely UN’s Gender Inequality Index and WHO’s global tobacco prevalence estimates. Results: In the mixed-effect regression analysis using equal number of 76 long-standing cancer registries in each year from 1983 to 2007, and after adjusting for geographic variation in sex ratio, lung cancer had the highest sex ratio on average in the baseline year (i.e., 9.9), followed by esophagus (7.8), bladder (5.1), liver (3.8), pancreas (2.1), kidney (1.9) leukemia (1.8), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (1.8), brain (1.6), rectum and anus (1.5), colon (1.2), eye (1.2), melanoma of skin (0.9), gallbladder (0.6), and thyroid (0.5). In registries belonging to countries, with low gender inequality and similar smoking prevalence in men and women (Sweden, Norway and Denmark), the sex ratio for lung cancer was relatively very low (1.2, 1.3 and 1.6). Whereas Spain with similar prevalence of smoking in men and women, showed an unusually high sex ratio for lung (7.1) as well as for other smoking associated cancers (bladder: 14.9; esophagus: 10.7; and larynx: 28.2). The results of our study also highlight several cancer types, in particular, kidney for which acknowledged and well-known risk factors are unlikely to fully explain the consistently stable male-female ratio of almost 2:1 across time and regions. Conclusions: The well-established risk factors in literature whose prevalence varies worldwide in both sexes, does not seem to decipher the curiously stable sex ratios in cancer of kidney maintained over three decades. This observation has made us to tentatively hypothesize that some endogenous factor such as a gene or gene variant might be able to explain the stable sex ratio of this cancer. Another cancer type, multiple myeloma is also consistently stable across time and place, and where the role of vitamin D has previously been postulated. The study points towards gaps in our understanding of causes of cancer risk in populations
    • 

    corecore