80 research outputs found

    SVM-Based Channel Estimation and Data Detection for One-Bit Massive MIMO systems

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    The use of low-resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) is a practical solution for reducing cost and power consumption for massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. However, the severe nonlinearity of low-resolution ADCs causes significant distortions in the received signals and makes the channel estimation and data detection tasks much more challenging. In this paper, we show how Support Vector Machine (SVM), a well-known supervised-learning technique in machine learning, can be exploited to provide efficient and robust channel estimation and data detection in massive MIMO systems with one-bit ADCs. First, the problem of channel estimation for uncorrelated channels is formulated as a conventional SVM problem. The objective function of this SVM problem is then modified for estimating spatially correlated channels. Next, a two-stage detection algorithm is proposed where SVM is further exploited in the first stage. The performance of the proposed data detection method is very close to that of Maximum-Likelihood (ML) data detection when the channel is perfectly known. We also propose an SVM-based joint Channel Estimation and Data Detection (CE-DD) method, which makes use of both the to-be-decoded data vectors and the pilot data vectors to improve the estimation and detection performance. Finally, an extension of the proposed methods to OFDM systems with frequency-selective fading channels is presented. Simulation results show that the proposed methods are efficient and robust, and also outperform existing ones

    Secure Communication for Spatially Sparse Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Channels via Hybrid Precoding

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    In this paper, we investigate secure communication over sparse millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels by exploiting the spatial sparsity of legitimate user's channel. We propose a secure communication scheme in which information data is precoded onto dominant angle components of the sparse channel through a limited number of radio-frequency (RF) chains, while artificial noise (AN) is broadcast over the remaining nondominant angles interfering only with the eavesdropper with a high probability. It is shown that the channel sparsity plays a fundamental role analogous to secret keys in achieving secure communication. Hence, by defining two statistical measures of the channel sparsity, we analytically characterize its impact on secrecy rate. In particular, a substantial improvement on secrecy rate can be obtained by the proposed scheme due to the uncertainty, i.e., 'entropy', introduced by the channel sparsity which is unknown to the eavesdropper. It is revealed that sparsity in the power domain can always contribute to the secrecy rate. In contrast, in the angle domain, there exists an optimal level of sparsity that maximizes the secrecy rate. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme and derived results are verified by numerical simulations

    Joint Symbol-Level Precoding and Reflecting Designs for IRS-Enhanced MU-MISO Systems

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    Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) have emerged as a revolutionary solution to enhance wireless communications by changing propagation environment in a cost-effective and hardware-efficient fashion. In addition, symbol-level precoding (SLP) has attracted considerable attention recently due to its advantages in converting multiuser interference (MUI) into useful signal energy. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the employment of IRS in symbol-level precoding systems to exploit MUI in a more effective way by manipulating the multiuser channels. In this article, we focus on joint symbol-level precoding and reflecting designs in IRS-enhanced multiuser multiple-input single-output (MU-MISO) systems. Both power minimization and quality-of-service (QoS) balancing problems are considered. In order to solve the joint optimization problems, we develop an efficient iterative algorithm to decompose them into separate symbol-level precoding and block-level reflecting design problems. An efficient gradient-projection-based algorithm is utilized to design the symbol-level precoding and a Riemannian conjugate gradient (RCG)-based algorithm is employed to solve the reflecting design problem. Simulation results demonstrate the significant performance improvement introduced by the IRS and illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms

    3D UAV Trajectory and Communication Design for Simultaneous Uplink and Downlink Transmission

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    In this paper, we investigate the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-Aided simultaneous uplink and downlink transmission networks, where one UAV acting as a disseminator is connected to multiple access points (AP), and the other UAV acting as a base station (BS) collects data from numerous sensor nodes (SNs). The goal of this paper is to maximize the system throughput by jointly optimizing the 3D UAV trajectory, communication scheduling, and UAV-AP/SN transmit power. We first consider a special case where the UAV-BS and UAV-AP trajectories are pre-determined. Although the resulting problem is an integer and non-convex optimization problem, a globally optimal solution is obtained by applying the polyblock outer approximation (POA) method based on the problem's hidden monotonic structure. Subsequently, for the general case considering the 3D UAV trajectory optimization, an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed to alternately optimize the divided sub-problems based on the successive convex approximation (SCA) technique. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed design is able to achieve significant system throughput gain over the benchmarks. In addition, the SCA-based method can achieve nearly the same performance as the POA-based method with much lower computational complexity

    Spectral Efficiency of One-Bit Sigma-Delta Massive MIMO

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    We examine the uplink spectral efficiency of a massive MIMO base station employing a one-bit Sigma-Delta ( \Sigma \Delta ) sampling scheme implemented in the spatial rather than the temporal domain. Using spatial rather than temporal oversampling, and feedback of the quantization error between adjacent antennas, the method shapes the spatial spectrum of the quantization noise away from an angular sector where the signals of interest are assumed to lie. It is shown that, while a direct Bussgang analysis of the \Sigma \Delta approach is not suitable, an alternative equivalent linear model can be formulated to facilitate an analysis of the system performance. The theoretical properties of the spatial quantization noise power spectrum are derived for the \Sigma \Delta array, as well as an expression for the spectral efficiency of maximum ratio combining (MRC). Simulations verify the theoretical results and illustrate the significant performance gains offered by the \Sigma \Delta approach for both MRC and zero-forcing receivers

    Throughput Maximization for UAV-Aided Backscatter Communication Networks

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    This paper investigates unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-aided backscatter communication (BackCom) networks, where the UAV is leveraged to help the backscatter device (BD) forward signals to the receiver. Based on the presence or absence of a direct link between BD and receiver, two protocols, namely transmit-backscatter (TB) protocol and transmit-backscatter-relay (TBR) protocol, are proposed to utilize the UAV to assist the BD. In particular, we formulate the system throughput maximization problems for the two protocols by jointly optimizing the time allocation, reflection coefficient and UAV trajectory. Different static/dynamic circuit power consumption models for the two protocols are analyzed. The resulting optimization problems are shown to be non-convex, which are challenging to solve. We first consider the dynamic circuit power consumption model, and decompose the original problems into three sub-problems, namely time allocation optimization with fixed UAV trajectory and reflection coefficient, reflection coefficient optimization with fixed UAV trajectory and time allocation, and UAV trajectory optimization with fixed reflection coefficient and time allocation. Then, an efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for both protocols by leveraging the block coordinate descent method and successive convex approximation (SCA) techniques. In addition, for the static circuit power consumption model, we obtain the optimal time allocation with a given reflection coefficient and UAV trajectory and the optimal reflection coefficient with low computational complexity by using the Lagrangian dual method. Simulation results show that the proposed protocols are able to achieve significant throughput gains over the compared benchmarks

    Massive MIMO 1-Bit DAC Transmission: A Low-Complexity Symbol Scaling Approach

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    CCBY We study multi-user massive multiple-input singleoutput (MISO) systems and focus on downlink transmission for PSK modulation, where the base station (BS) employs a large antenna array with low-cost 1-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The direct combination of existing beamforming schemes with 1-bit DACs is shown to lead to an error floor at mediumto- high SNR regime, due to the coarse quantization of the DACs with limited precision. In this paper, based on the constructive interference we consider both a quantized linear beamforming scheme where we analytically obtain the optimal beamforming matrix, and a non-linear mapping scheme where we directly design the transmit signal vector. Due to the 1-bit quantization, the formulated optimization for the non-linear mapping scheme is shown to be non-convex. The non-convex constraints of the 1-bit DACs are firstly relaxed into convex, followed by an element-wise normalization to satisfy the 1-bit DAC transmission. We further propose a low-complexity symbol scaling scheme that consists of three stages, in which the quantized transmit signal on each antenna element is selected sequentially. Numerical results show that the proposed symbol scaling scheme achieves a comparable performance to the optimization-based non-linear mapping approach, while the corresponding performance-complexity tradeoff is more favorable for the proposed symbol scaling method

    A Comprehensive Overview on 5G-and-Beyond Networks with UAVs: From Communications to Sensing and Intelligence

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    Due to the advancements in cellular technologies and the dense deployment of cellular infrastructure, integrating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond cellular networks is a promising solution to achieve safe UAV operation as well as enabling diversified applications with mission-specific payload data delivery. In particular, 5G networks need to support three typical usage scenarios, namely, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC), and massive machine-type communications (mMTC). On the one hand, UAVs can be leveraged as cost-effective aerial platforms to provide ground users with enhanced communication services by exploiting their high cruising altitude and controllable maneuverability in three-dimensional (3D) space. On the other hand, providing such communication services simultaneously for both UAV and ground users poses new challenges due to the need for ubiquitous 3D signal coverage as well as the strong air-ground network interference. Besides the requirement of high-performance wireless communications, the ability to support effective and efficient sensing as well as network intelligence is also essential for 5G-and-beyond 3D heterogeneous wireless networks with coexisting aerial and ground users. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research efforts on integrating UAVs into cellular networks, with an emphasis on how to exploit advanced techniques (e.g., intelligent reflecting surface, short packet transmission, energy harvesting, joint communication and radar sensing, and edge intelligence) to meet the diversified service requirements of next-generation wireless systems. Moreover, we highlight important directions for further investigation in future work.Comment: Accepted by IEEE JSA