1,922 research outputs found

    NASA Lewis 8 by 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel

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    Performance data are presented for the tunnel, which has a Mach number range from 0.36 to 2.0. The tunnel circuit, test section, model support systems, auxiliary systems, instrumentation, control room equipment, and automatic recording and computing equipment are also described. Information is presented on criteria for designing models and on shop facilities available to prospective users

    Emerging communities of child-healthcare practice in the management of long-term conditions such as chronic kidney disease: Qualitative study of parents' accounts

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    Background: Parents of children and young people with long-term conditions who need to deliver clinical care to their child at home with remote support from hospital-based professionals, often search the internet for care-giving information. However, there is little evidence that the information available online was developed and evaluated with parents or that it acknowledges the communities of practice that exist as parents and healthcare professionals share responsibility for condition management. Methods. The data reported here are part of a wider study that developed and tested a condition-specific, online parent information and support application with children and young people with chronic-kidney disease, parents and professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 fathers and 24 mothers who had recently tested the novel application. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis and the Communities of Practice concept. Results: Evolving communities of child-healthcare practice were identified comprising three components and several sub components: (1) Experiencing (parents making sense of clinical tasks) through Normalising care, Normalising illness, Acceptance & action, Gaining strength from the affected child and Building relationships to formalise a routine; (2) Doing (Parents executing tasks according to their individual skills) illustrated by Developing coping strategies, Importance of parents' efficacy of care and Fear of the child's health failing; and (3) Belonging/Becoming (Parents defining task and group members' worth and creating a personal identity within the community) consisting of Information sharing, Negotiation with health professionals and Achieving expertise in care. Parents also recalled factors affecting the development of their respective communities of healthcare practice; these included Service transition, Poor parent social life, Psycho-social affects, Family chronic illness, Difficulty in learning new procedures, Shielding and avoidance, and Language and cultural barriers. Health care professionals will benefit from using the communities of child-healthcare practice model when they support parents of children with chronic kidney disease. Conclusions: Understanding some of the factors that may influence the development of communities of child-healthcare practice will help professionals to tailor information and support for parents learning to manage their child's healthcare. Our results are potentially transferrable to professionals managing the care of children and young people with other long-term conditions. © 2014 Carolan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    Multidisciplinary teams, and parents, negotiating common ground in shared-care of children with long-term conditions: A mixed methods study

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    Background: Limited negotiation around care decisions is believed to undermine collaborative working between parents of children with long-term conditions and professionals, but there is little evidence of how they actually negotiate their respective roles. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on a multi-method study of social interaction between multidisciplinary teams and parents as they shared clinical care. Methods. Phases 1 and 2: a telephone survey mapping multidisciplinary teams' parent-educative activities, and qualitative interviews with 112 professionals (Clinical-psychologists, Dietitians, Doctors, Nurses, Play-specialists, Pharmacists, Therapists and Social-workers) exploring their accounts of parent-teaching in the 12 British children's kidney units. Phase 3: six ethnographic case studies in two units involving observations of professional/parent interactions during shared-care, and individual interviews. We used an analytical framework based on concepts drawn from Communities of Practice and Activity Theory. Results: Professionals spoke of the challenge of explaining to each other how they are aware of parents' understanding of clinical knowledge, and described three patterns of parent-educative activity that were common across MDTs: Engaging parents in shared practice; Knowledge exchange and role negotiation, and Promoting common ground. Over time, professionals had developed a shared repertoire of tools to support their negotiations with parents that helped them accomplish common ground during the practice of shared-care. We observed mutual engagement between professionals and parents where a common understanding of the joint enterprise of clinical caring was negotiated. Conclusions: For professionals, making implicit knowledge explicit is important as it can provide them with a language through which to articulate more clearly to each other what is the basis of their intuition-based hunches about parents' support needs, and may help them to negotiate with parents and accelerate parents' learning about shared caring. Our methodology and results are potentially transferrable to shared management of other conditions. © 2013 Swallow et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    Effect of ovariectomy on the progression of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in female Cy/+ rats

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    Male Cy/+ rats have shown a relatively consistent pattern of progressive kidney disease development that displays multiple key features of late stage chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD), specifically the development of cortical bone porosity. However, progression of disease in female Cy/+ rats, assessed in limited studies, is more heterogeneous and to date has failed to show development of the CKD-MBD phenotype, thus limiting their use as a practical model of progressive CKD-MBD. Animal and human studies suggest that estrogen may be protective against kidney disease in addition to its established protective effect on bone. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of ovariectomy (OVX) on the biochemical and skeletal manifestations of CKD-MBD in Cy/+ female rats. We hypothesized that OVX would accelerate development of the biochemical and skeletal features of CKD-MBD in female Cy/+ rats, similar to those seen in male Cy/+ rats. Female Cy/+ rats underwent OVX (n = 8) or Sham (n = 8) surgery at 15 weeks of age. Blood was collected every 5 weeks post-surgery until 35 weeks of age, when the rats underwent a 4-day metabolic balance, and the tibia and final blood were collected at the time of sacrifice. OVX produced the expected changes in trabecular and cortical parameters consistent with post-menopausal disease, and negative phosphorus balance compared with Sham. However, indicators of CKD-MBD were similar between OVX and Sham (similar kidney weight, plasma blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinine clearance, phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and no cortical porosity). Contrary to our hypothesis, OVX did not produce evidence of development of the CKD-MBD phenotype in female Cy/+ rats

    Semileptonic Hyperon Decays and CKM Unitarity

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    Using a technique that is not subject to first-order SU(3) symmetry breaking effects, we determine the VusV_{us} element of the CKM matrix from data on semileptonic hyperon decays. We obtain VusV_{us} =0.2250(27). This value is of similar precision to the one derived from Kl3K_{l3}, but higher and in better agreement with the unitarity requirement, Vud2+Vus2+Vub2=1|V_{ud}|^2+|V_{us}|^2+|V_{ub}|^2=1.Comment: 3 pages, 1 tabl

    Effective Hamiltonian Approach to Hyperon Beta Decay with Final-State Baryon Polarization

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    Using an effective Hamiltonian approach, we obtain expressions for hyperon beta decay final-state baryon polarization. Terms through second order in the energy release are retained. The resulting approximate expressions are much simpler and more compact than the exact expressions, and they agree closely with them.Comment: 1 Figure Will appear in Phys Rev D 60 Article 117505 (Dec 1, 1999

    Young People’s, Parents’, and Professionals’ Views on Required Components of Mobile Apps to Support Self-Management of Juvenile Arthritis: Qualitative Study

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    Background: There is growing evidence that supporting self-management of Juvenile Arthritis can benefit both patients and professionals. Young people with Juvenile Arthritis and their healthy peers increasingly use mobile technologies to access information and support in day-to-day life. Therefore, a user-led, rigorously developed and evaluated mobile app could be valuable for facilitating young people’s self-management of Juvenile Arthritis. Objective: The objective of this study was to seek the views of young people with Juvenile Arthritis, their parents or carers, and health care professionals (HCPs) as to what should be included in a mobile app to facilitate young people’s self-management of chronic Juvenile Arthritis. Methods: A qualitative approach was adopted with a purposeful sample of 9 young people aged 10-18 years with Juvenile Arthritis, 8 parents or carers, and 8 HCPs involved in their care. Data were gathered through semi-structured focus group and individual interviews with young people and their parents or carers and HCPs. Interview discussion was facilitated through demonstration of four existing health apps to explore participants’ views on strengths and limitations of these, barriers and facilitators to mobile app use, preferred designs, functionality, levels of interaction, and data sharing arrangements. Data were analyzed using the framework approach. Results: Analysis revealed three interlinked, overarching themes: (1) purpose, (2) components and content, and (3) social support. Despite some differences in emphasis on essential content, general agreement was found between young people with Juvenile Arthritis their parents or carers, and professionals that a mobile app to aid self-management would be useful. Underpinning the themes was a prerequisite that young people are enabled to feel a sense of ownership and control of the app, and that it be an interactive, engaging resource that offers developmentally appropriate information and reminders, as well as enabling them to monitor their symptoms and access social support. Conclusions: Findings justify and pave the way for a future feasibility study into the production and preliminary testing of such an app. This would consider issues such as compatibility with existing technologies, costs, age, and cross-gender appeal as well as resource implications

    Measurements of the Decay KLe+eγK_L \to e^+e^-\gamma

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    The E799-II (KTeV) experiment at Fermilab has collected 83262 KLe+eγK_L \to e^+e^-\gamma events above a background of 79 events. We measure a decay width, normalized to the KLπ0π0πD0K_L \to \pi^0\pi^0\pi^0_D (\pi^0 \to \gamma\gamma, \pi^0 to \gamma\gamma, \pi^0_D \to e^+e^-\gamma) decay width, of Γ(\Gamma(K_L \to e^+e^-\gamma)/Γ(KLπ0π0πD0)=(1.3302±0.0046stat±0.0102syst)×103)/\Gamma(K_L \to \pi^0\pi^0\pi^0_D) = (1.3302 \pm 0.0046_{stat} \pm 0.0102_{syst}) \times 10^{-3}. We also measure parameters of two KLγγK_L \gamma^{\ast}\gamma form factor models. In the Bergstrom, Masso, and Singer (BMS) parametrization, we find \caks = -0.517 \pm 0.030_{stat} \pm 0.022_{syst}. We separately fit for the first parameter of the D'Ambrosio, Isidori, and Portoles (DIP) model and find \adip = -1.729 \pm 0.043_{stat} \pm 0.028_{syst}.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted to PR

    Time-Lapse Acoustic Imaging of Mesoscale and Fine-Scale Variability within the Faroe-Shetland Channel

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    We describe and analyze the results of a three‐dimensional seismic (i.e. acoustic) reflection survey from the Faroe‐Shetland Channel that is calibrated with near‐coincident hydrographic and satellite observations. 54 vertical seismic transects were acquired over a period of 25 days. On each transect, a 250‐‐400 m band of reflections is observed within the water column. Hydrographic measurements demonstrate that this reflective band is caused by temperature variations within the pycnocline that separates warm, near‐surface waters of Atlantic origin from cold, deep waters which flow southward from the Nordic Seas. Tilting of reflective surfaces records geostrophic shear between these near‐surface and deep waters. Measurements of temporal changes of pycnoclinic depth and of reflection tilt are used to infer the existence of an anticyclonic vortex that advects northeastward. Comparison with satellite measurements of sea‐surface temperature and height suggests that this vortex is caused by meandering of the Continental Slope Current. A model of a Gaussian vortex is used to match seismic and satellite observations. This putative vortex has a core radius of 20—30 km and a maximum azimuthal velocity of 0.3‐‐0.4 m s‐1. It translates at 0.01‐‐0.1 m s‐1. Within the pycnocline, diapycnal diffusivity, K , is estimaed by analyzing the turbulent spectral subrange of tracked reflections. K varies between 10‐5.7 and 10‐5.0 m 2 s‐1 in a pattern that is broadly consistent with translation of the vortex. Our integrated study demonstrates the ability of time‐lapse seismic reflection surveying to dynamically resolve the effects that mesoscale activity has upon deep thermohaline structure on scales from meters to hundreds of kilometers.Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Engineering and Physical Science Research Council 794 Program Grant EP/K034529/
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