1,005 research outputs found

    AN ASSESSMENT OF DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS TO MILK PRODUCERS IN JAPAN

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    This article represents an econometric assessment of the role that deficiency payments have played in developing the Japanese fluid and manufacturing milk markets and the potential effects of reducing deficiency payments on these milk markets. Principal findings are: (a) an historical simulation of the model without deficiency payments and import quotas indicates that these measures have reduced the variation in milk prices that would have otherwise occurred under this model, and price supports through these measures have resulted in greater milk production than would have accrued without price supports; and (b) a reduction in deficiency payments beginning in 1998 results in a decrease in milk prices and manufacturing milk supply and an increase in fluid milk supply and dairy imports, but fluid milk prices soon stop declining. The policy implications of such a decline in deficiency payments are discussed.Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,

    IMPERFECT COMPETITION MODELS AND COMMODITY PROMOTION EVALUATION: THE CASE OF U.S. GENERIC MILK ADVERTISING

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    This article examines whether the assumption of perfect competition in the U.S. dairy industry biases the findings of economic impacts of generic dairy advertising. An imperfect competition model based on an approach similar to that of Appelbaum is developed and used to evaluate generic milk advertising. The results are compared with a perfect competition model. The findings indicate positive price and quantity impacts due to generic advertising. The differences in magnitude of impacts between the two models are small, suggesting that the assumption of perfect competition for U.S. dairy models is plausible.Evaluation, Generic milk advertising, Imperfect competition model, Marketing,

    Observations Of Metal Concentrations In E-Region Sporadic Thin Layers Using Incoherent-Scatter Radar

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    Thesis (Ph.D.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2006This thesis has used incoherent-scatter radar data from the facility at Sondrestrom, Greenland to determine the ion mass values inside thin sporadic-E layers in the lower ionosphere. Metallic positively-charged ions of meteoric origin are deposited in the earth's upper atmosphere over a height range of about 85-120 km. Electric fields and neutral-gas (eg N2, O, O2) winds at high latitudes may produce convergent ion dynamics that results in the re-distribution of the background altitude distribution of the ions to form thin (1-3 km) high-density layers that are detectable with radar. A large database of experimental radar observations has been processed to determine ion mass values inside these thin ion layers. The range resolution of the radar was 600 meters that permitted mass determinations at several altitude steps within the layers. Near the lower edge of the layers the ion mass values were in the range 20-25 amu while at the top portion of the layers the mass values were generally in the range 30-40 amu. The numerical values are consistent with in-situ mass spectrometer data obtained by other researchers that suggest these layers are mainly composed of a mixture or Mg +, Si+, and Fe + ions. The small tendency for heavier ions to reside at the top portion of the layers is consistent with theory. The results have also found new evidence for the existence of complex-shaped multiple layers; the examples studied suggest similar ion mass values in different layers that in some cases are separated in altitude by several km

    Parametric Wind Velocity Vector Estimation Method for Single Doppler LIDAR Model

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    Doppler lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) can provide accurate wind velocity vector estimates by processing the time delay and Doppler spectrum of received signals. This system is essential for real-time wind monitoring to assist aircraft taking off and landing. Considering the difficulty of calibration and cost, a single Doppler lidar model is more attractive and practical than a multiple lidar model. In general, it is impossible to estimate two or three dimensional wind vectors from a single lidar model without any prior information, because lidar directly observes only a 1-dimensional (radial direction) velocity component of wind. Although the conventional VAD (Velocity Azimuth Display) and VVP (Velocity Volume Processing) methods have been developed for single lidar model, both of them are inaccurate in the presence of local air turbulence. This paper proposes an accurate wind velocity estimation method based on a parametric approach using typical turbulence models such as tornado, micro-burst and gust front. The results from numerical simulation demonstrate that the proposed method remarkably enhances the accuracy for wind velocity estimation in the assumed modeled turbulence cases, compared with that obtained by the VAD or other conventional method

    AN ANALYSIS OF U.S. DAIRY POLICY DEREGULATION USING AN IMPERFECT COMPETITION MODEL

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    An imperfect competition model of the U.S. milk market is developed for analyzing the impacts of dairy policy deregulation. Estimated degree-of-competition parameters indicate that the U.S. milk market has become more competitive over time. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by showing the relative differences of dynamic simulation results of the imperfect competition model with the results of a conventional exogenous fluid differential model.Agricultural and Food Policy,

    Impact of Breaking Wave Form Drag on Near-Surface Turbulence and Drag Coefficient over Young Seas at High Winds

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    The effects of breaking waves on near-surface wind turbulence and drag coefficient are investigated using large-eddy simulation. The impact of intermittent and transient wave breaking events (over a range of scales) is modeled as localized form drag, which generates airflow separation bubbles downstream. The simulations are performed for very young sea conditions under high winds, comparable to previous laboratory experiments in hurricane-strength winds. The results for the drag coefficient in high winds range between about 0.002 and 0.003. In such conditions more than 90% of the total air–sea momentum flux is due to the form drag of breakers; that is, the contributions of the nonbreaking wave form drag and the surface viscous stress are small. Detailed analysis shows that the breaker form drag impedes the shear production of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) near the surface and, instead, produces a large amount of small-scale wake turbulence by transferring energy from large-scale motions (such as mean wind and gusts). This process shortcuts the inertial energy cascade and results in large TKE dissipation (integrated over the surface layer) normalized by friction velocity cubed. Consequently, the large production of wake turbulence by breakers in high winds results in the small drag coefficient obtained in this study. The results also suggest that common parameterizations for the mean wind profile and the TKE dissipation inside the wave boundary layer, used in previous Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models, may not be valid

    Impact of Dominant Breaking Waves on Air–Sea Momentum Exchange and Boundary Layer Turbulence at High Winds

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    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to investigate how dominant breaking waves in the ocean under hurricane-force winds affect the drag and near-surface airflow turbulence. The LES explicitly resolves the wake turbulence produced by dominant-scale breakers. Effects of unresolved roughness such as short breakers, nonbreaking waves, and sea foam are modeled as the subgrid-scale drag. Compared to the laboratory conditions previously studied using the same method, dominant-scale breakers in open-ocean conditions are less frequent, and the subgrid-scale drag is more significant. Nevertheless, dominant-scale breakers are more fully exposed to high winds and produce more intense wakes individually. As a result, they support a large portion of the total drag and significantly influence the turbulence for many ocean conditions that are likely to occur. The intense wake turbulence is characterized by flow separation, upward bursts of wind, and upward flux of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), all of which may influence sea spray dispersion. Similarly to the findings in the laboratory conditions, high production of wake turbulence shortcuts the inertial energy cascade, causes high TKE dissipation, and contributes to the reduction of the drag coefficient. The results also indicate that if the drag coefficient decreases with increasing wind at very high winds, as some recent observations suggest, then the unresolved roughness must also decrease

    Turbulent Airflow at Young Sea States with Frequent Wave Breaking Events: Large-Eddy Simulation

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    A neutrally stratified turbulent airflow over a very young sea surface at a high-wind condition was investigated using large-eddy simulations. In such a state, the dominant drag at the sea surface occurs over breaking waves, and the relationship between the dominant drag and local instantaneous surface wind is highly stochastic and anisotropic. To model such a relationship, a bottom boundary stress parameterization was proposed for the very young sea surface resolving individual breakers. This parameterization was compared to the commonly used parameterization for isotropic surfaces. Over both the young sea and isotropic surfaces, the main near-surface turbulence structure was wall-attached, large-scale, quasi-streamwise vortices. Over the young sea surface, these vortices were more intense, and the near-surface mean velocity gradient was smaller. This is because the isotropic surface weakens the swirling motions of the vortices by spanwise drag. In contrast, the young sea surface exerts little spanwise drag and develops more intense vortices, resulting in greater turbulence and mixing. The vigorous turbulence decreases the mean velocity gradient in the roughness sublayer below the logarithmic layer. Thus, the enhancement of the air–sea momentum flux (drag coefficient) due to breaking waves is caused not only by the streamwise form drag over individual breakers but also by the enhanced vortices. Furthermore, contrary to an assumption used in existing wave boundary layer models, the wave effect may extend as high as 10–20 times the breaking wave height
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