21,063 research outputs found

    Thermoluminescence of Antarctic meteorites: A rapid screening technique for terrestrial age estimation, pairing studies and identification of specimens with unusual prefall histories

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    Thermoluminescence (TL) is a promising technique for rapid screening of the large numbers of Antarctic meteorites, permitting identification of interesting specimens that can then be studied in detail by other, more definite techniques. Specifically, TL permits determination of rough terrestrial age, identification of potential paired groups and location of specimens with unusual pre-fall histories. Meteorites with long terrestrial ages are particularly valuable for studying transport and weathering mechanisms. Pairing studies are possible because TL variations among meteorites are large compared to variations within individual objects, especially for natural TL. Available TL data for several L3 fragments, three of which were paired by other techniques, are presented as an example of the use of TL parameters in pairing studies. Additional TL measurements, specifically a blind test, are recommended to satisfactorily establish the reliability of this pairing property. The TL measurements also identify fragments with unusual pre-fall histories, such an near-Sun orbits

    Use of capillary electrophoresis as a method development tool for classical gel electrophoresis

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    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to optimize the buffer pH, ionic strength and sulfated cyclodextrin concentrations for enantiomeric separation of piperoxan. These enantioseparation conditions were then applied to a classical gel electrophoresis system. Binding constants of the sulfated beta-cyclodextrin–piperoxan couple were approximated using CE and the effects of organic solvents on the system were also investigated

    Sub-grid variability in ammonia concentrations and dry deposition in an upland landscape

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    Reconstruction of deglacial sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific from selective analysis of a fossil coral

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    The Sr/Ca of coral skeletons demonstrates potential as an indicator of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, the glacial-interglacial SST ranges predicted from Sr/Ca of fossil corals are usually higher than from other marine proxies. We observed infilling of secondary aragonite, characterised by high Sr/Ca ratios, along intraskeletal pores of a fossil coral from Papua New Guinea that grew during the penultimate deglaciation (130 +/- 2 ka). Selective microanalysis of unaltered areas of the fossil coral indicates that SSTs at similar to 130 ka were &lt;= 1 degrees C cooler than at present in contrast with bulk measurements ( combining infilled and unaltered areas) which indicate a difference of 6-7 degrees C. The analysis of unaltered areas of fossil skeletons by microprobe techniques may offer a route to more accurate reconstruction of past SSTs.</p

    A NEW APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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    The costs of living with wildlife are assessed using Namibian subsistence farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for deterrents to attacks on crops and livestock as a measure of damage costs. A utility-theoretic approach jointly estimates household WTP for deterrent programs in two currencies, maize and cash. This has a double payoff. Use of a noncash staple increases respondent comprehension and provides more information about preferences, improving the accuracy of results. The household shadow value of maize is also identified. Significant costs from living with elephants and other types of wildlife are demonstrated. Compensation for farmers may be warranted on equity and efficiency grounds. Uncontrolled domestic cattle generate even higher costs to farmers than wildlife, highlighting the need to clarify property rights among these farmers.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Operating manual for coaxial injection combustion model

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    An operating manual for the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) is presented as the final report for an eleven month effort designed to provide improvement, to verify, and to document the comprehensive computer program for analyzing the performance of thrust chamber operation with gas/liquid coaxial jet injection. The effort culminated in delivery of an operation FORTRAN IV computer program and associated documentation pertaining to the combustion conditions in the space shuttle main engine. The computer program is structured for compatibility with the standardized Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) performance evaluation procedure. Use of the CICM in conjunction with the JANNAF procedure allows the analysis of engine systems using coaxial gas/liquid injection

    Impurity segregation in graphene nanoribbons

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    The electronic properties of low-dimensional materials can be engineered by doping, but in the case of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) the proximity of two symmetry-breaking edges introduces an additional dependence on the location of an impurity across the width of the ribbon. This introduces energetically favorable locations for impurities, leading to a degree of spatial segregation in the impurity concentration. We develop a simple model to calculate the change in energy of a GNR system with an arbitrary impurity as that impurity is moved across the ribbon and validate its findings by comparison with ab initio calculations. Although our results agree with previous works predicting the dominance of edge disorder in GNR, we argue that the distribution of adsorbed impurities across a ribbon may be controllable by external factors, namely an applied electric field. We propose that this control over impurity segregation may allow manipulation and fine-tuning of the magnetic and transport properties of GNRs.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitte

    First-principles calculation of the elastic dipole tensor of a point defect: Application to hydrogen in α-zirconium

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    The elastic dipole tensor is a fundamental quantity relating the elastic field and atomic structure of a point defect. We review three methods in the literature to calculate the dipole tensor and apply them to hydrogen in α -zirconium using density functional theory (DFT). The results are compared with the dipole tensor deduced from earlier experimental measurements of the λ tensor for hydrogen in α -zirconium. There are significant errors with all three methods. We show that calculation of the λ tensor, in combination with experimentally measured elastic constants and lattice parameters, yields dipole tensor components that differ from experimental values by only 10%–20%. There is evidence to suggest that current state-of-the-art DFT calculations underestimate bonding between hydrogen and α -zirconium

    A need basis for values

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    Values are viewed as partly based on needs, but little research has been devoted to testing this relationship. The need to attain or avoid cognitive closure may be an important cognitive-motivational factor underlying the endorsement and pursuit of particular values. The present research provided an empirical test of the relations between individual differences in the need for cognitive closure (NFCC) and Schwartz’s ten values. One hundred men and women from a southeastern British university completed measures of NFCC and basic values. Consistent with hypotheses, the results indicated that NFCC was positively associated with valuing Security, Conformity, and Tradition and negatively associated with valuing Stimulation and Self-Direction. In addition, NFCC was unrelated to valuing Hedonism, Power, Universalism, and Benevolence, but negatively related to valuing Achievement. Consistent with theories of epistemic closure, this research supports the idea that individual differences in NFCC give rise to values which match and satisfy individual needs to attain or avoid cognitive closure
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