62 research outputs found

    A Constructive, Conceptual Analytical Review of the Community of Inquiry Framework

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    This thesis comprises a critical review and suggestions for enhancement of the Community of Inquiry Framework (CoIF), the frequently cited model of collaborative community-based online learning. It combines a systematic engagement of relevant literature and research, with the application of the CoIF thinking to six of my peer-reviewed publications. Although not initially conceived as forming part of a doctorate submission, these publications are drawn upon throughout this narrative, to assist my interrogation of the CoIF. They are also used to provide evidence of my continuing journey as an education researcher. This thesis is therefore not an exegesis – a traditional meta-narrative encompassing this candidate’s publications. It moves beyond my findings in the publications to create and present supplementary concepts, and develop pointed guidance about using the Framework in supporting online learning in tertiary education. My review first critically interrogates the three constituent elements or Presences of the CoIF. Social presence emerges as a highly complex and multi-faceted construct, in which the de-emphasising of the affective in the CoIF seems at variance with current research reporting the strong student emotional response to working online, and particularly in collaborative, community-based groupings. Then, in Cognitive presence, there has been little consideration of, and specificity about, reflection in the CoIF. My critique proposes that reflection and critical thinking are distinct but inter-related concepts; both of which need to be addressed. Teaching presence is renamed ‘Tutoring presence’ informed by my review based upon my emergent understandings of student-centred learning. Two enhancements to the CoIF are then proposed, together with the rationale for establishment of a Tutors’ Network. The first enhancement, referred to as 'the Influences,’ unites and enriches the individual Presences. The second argues for the existence and use of a personal learning retreat at the heart of a community of inquiry, addressing a perceived omission in the CoIF. This learner ‘space’ provides a ‘quiet, safe place’ for the private (internal) world of the learner, as a foil to the shared collaborative space in the CoIF (the external world). Finally, a Tutors’ Network is outlined as a vehicle for advancing their understandings and knowledge of online, collaborative, community-based learning in general, and in particular of communities of inquiry. This should develop the abilities of online tutors, improve their learners’ educational experiences and encourage research and scholarship into the CoIF

    The PhD by Publication

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    ** From Crossref via Jisc Publications Router.CAP12pub4998pu


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    Steve McDowell and Phil Race, 500 Computing Tips for Trainers, London: Kogan Page, ISBN: 0–7494–2675–6. Paperback, 160 pages, £15.99

    Research and evaluation into the role of asynchronous computer-mediated conferencing and virtual learning environments to improve hospitality and tourism supervision and peer support whilst on placement.

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    PEDAGOGIC RESEARCH PROJECT REPORTThis report explores the contribution that networked technologies can make to support learning during work placements. An educational case study is presented which evaluates the development and implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) amongst a group of undergraduate students studying hospitality and tourism management at Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh. The case study reveals that it is feasible to create an online facility that can be beneficial to both students and placement tutors. Moreover, it is revealed that the development of a VLE for placement learning can serve as an effective means of introducing both placement tutors and students to use of computer mediated conferencing as a means of communication. However, it has been found that a number of barriers do exist which prevent the potential of such a facility being fully realised. Principal amongst these barriers were restrictions on student access, and student and staff unfamiliarity with using computer mediated conferencing as a pedagogic tool. It was also found that the preferred use of computer mediated conferencing was to support informal discussion between students and tutors. A more formal use in respect of making connections between placement experience and classroom learning was not in evidence. This is considered to be a missed opportunity. The study concludes that more needs to be done to promote a more 'formal' use of computer mediated conferencing as a mechanism to abstract learning from experience (reflection).div_MCaPAAdelman, C Kemmis, S and Jenkins, D (1976) Rethinking case study: notes from the Second Cambridge Conference, Cambridge Journal of Education, 6(3), 47-61. Barnes, D and Todd, F (1977) Communication and Learning in Small Groups. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (cited in McConnell, D (2000) Implementing Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (second edition). London: Kogan Page). Bassey, M (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings, Buckingham: Open University Press Blackwell, A, Bowes, L, Harvey, L, Hesketh, A J and Knight, P T (2001) Transforming Work Experience in Higher Education. British Educational Research Journal, 27(3), 269-285. Biggs, J (1985) The role of metalearning in study processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology 55(3),185-212 (cited in Salmon, G (2000) E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online London: Kogan Page). Britain, S and Liber, S (1999) A Framework for Pedagogical Evaluation of Virtual Learning Environments. Joint Information Systems Committee Technology Applications Programme: Report 41. Online - http://www.jtap.ac.uk/ Daugherty, M and Funke, B L (1998) University faculty and student perceptions of web-based instruction, Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), 21-39. Dede, C (1995) The transformation of distance education to distributed learning, International Technology Research. Online - http://www.gsu.edu/wwwitr/docs/distlearn/index.html Dutton, C, Parfitt, G, and Woodward, K (2001). Responding to Dearing through Innovative Learning Strategies: the mentoring of hospitality students by service industry professionals. Proceedings of the 4th Annual CHME Learning, Teaching and Assessment Conference, Sheffield Hallam University, 48-60. Feenberg, A (1989) The Written World: On the Theory and Practice of Computer Conferencing. In R Mason and A Kaye (eds.) Mindweave, Communication, Computers and Distance Education. Oxford: Pergamon, 22-39. Garnett J (1997) Quality Assurance in Work-based Learning in UACE work-based learning network conference 1997 (cited in Gray D (2001) A Briefing on Work-based Learning. LTSN Generic Assessment Series No 11, York: Learning and Teaching Support Network). Glick, J (1995) Intellectual and manual labour. In L Martin et al (eds) Socio-cultural Psychology: theory and practice of doing and knowing, New York: Cambridge University Press, 357-382. Guile, D and Griffiths, T (2001) Learning through work experience, Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 113-131. Grabinger, S, Dunlap, J and Duffield, J (1997) Rich environments for active learning in action: problem based learning. ALT- J 7(2), 66-77. Gray, D (2001). A Briefing on Work-based Learning. LTSN Generic Assessment Series No 11, York: Learning and Teaching Support Network. Harasim, L, Hiltz, S R, Teles, L and Turoff, M (1995) Learning network: a field guide to teaching and learning online. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Harvey, L, Geall, V and Moon S (1998) Work Experience: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduates, Centre for Research into Quality. Online - http://www.uce.ac.uk/crq/publications/we/index.html Hiltz, S R (1994) The virtual classroom: learning without limits via computer networks. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation. Jonassen, D, Davidson, M, Collins, M, Campbell, C and Haag, B (1995) Constructivism and computer-mediated communication in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education 9(2), 7-25. Jung, I, Choi, S, Lim, C and Leem, J (2002) Effects of different types of interaction on learning achievement, satisfaction and participation in Web-based instruction, Innovations in Education and Teaching International 39(2), 153-162. Muirhead, W (2000) Online education in schools. International Journal of Educational Management 14(7), 314-324. McConnell, D (2000) Implementing Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (second edition). London: Kogan Page. Naidu, S (1997) Collaborative reflective practice: an instructional design architecture for the Internet, Distance Education, 18(2) 257-83. National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (1997), Higher Education in the Learning Society. London: HMSO (The Dearing Report). Parker, D R (1997) Increasing faculty use of technology in teaching and teacher education, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 5(2/3), 105-115. Preece, J (1999) Empathic communities: balancing emotional and factual communication. Interacting With Computers 12, 63-77 (cited in Salmon, G (2000) E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online London: Kogan Page). Preece, J (2000) Online Communities: Supporting sociability and designing usability. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons (cited in Salmon, G (2000) E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online London: Kogan Page). Quality Assurance Agency (2001) Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education: placement learning. Online http://www.qaa.ac.uk/public/cop/COPplacementFinal/precepts.htm Raelin, J A (2000) Work-Based Learning: The New Frontier of Management Development. Prentice Hall: New Jersey (quoted in Gray, D (2001) A Briefing on Work-based Learning. LTSN Generic Assessment Series No 11, York: Learning and Teaching Support Network). Rowntree, D (1995) Teaching and learning online: a correspondence education for the 21st century? British Journal of Educational Technology 26(3), 205-215. Salmon, G (2000) E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online London: Kogan Page. Simons, H (1996) The Paradox of Case Study. Cambridge Journal of Education 26(2), 225-240. Springboard UK, (2001) The Impact of Student Placements: Valued Experience or Missed Opportunity, Festival 2001 Research Findings. Steel, J and Hudson A (2001) Educational Technology in Learning and Teaching: The Perceptions and Experiences of Teaching Staff, Innovations in Education and Teaching International 38(2), 103-111.pub848pu

    From Presences to Linked Influences Within Communities of Inquiry

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    Much research has identified and confirmed the core elements of the well-known Community of Inquiry Framework (CoIF): Social, Cognitive and Teaching Presence (Garrison, 2011). The overlap of these Presences, their definitions and roles, and their subsequent impact on the educational experience, has received less attention. This article is prompted by the acceptance of that omission (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2010). It proposes enrichment to the Framework, by entitling the overlapping spaces uniting pairs of Presences as Influences. These three spaces, linking pairings of Social, Teaching, and Cognitive Presences, can be labelled as trusting, meaning-making, and deepening understanding. Their contribution to the educational experience is to address constructively some of the challenges of online learning, including learner isolation, limited learner experience of collaborative group work and underdeveloped higher-level abilities. For these purposes we also envisage cognitive maps as supporting learners to assess progress to date and identify pathways forward (Garrison & Akyol, 2013). Such maps, developed by a course team, describe the territory that learners may wish to explore, signpost possible activities, and encourage the development of cognitive and interpersonal abilities required for online learning. We hope that considering the Influences may also assist tutor conceptualisations of online community-based learning. Our proposals call on both learners and tutors to conceive of the Presences and Influences as working together, in unison, to enhance the educational experience whilst fostering deep learning. Our suggestions are presented to stimulate scholarly debate about the potential of these interwoven sections, constructively extending the Framework.CAP17pub4600pub

    Identification of staff training and development needs.

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    Edinburgh, ScotlandThis interim report will present the findings to date of current practice in using and maintaining an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) for personal development planning across the tertiary education sector that have implications for staff development. A review of the current literature and a series of staff interviews have consistently identified a number of key issues relating to current and future ePortfolio practice which require serious consideration by institutions within higher and further education within a staff development programme. The terminology used to refer to an ePortfolio is also discussed in an attempt to differentiate between an ePortfolio as a process and an ePortfolio as a software program. Recommendations are made for staff development in current learning and teaching practice that include the use of reflection and story telling-. Additional areas for consider are: assessment; blogging;legal issues and an institution' rationale for use on an eportfolio.sch_podISLE (Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios) Projectunpub1642unpu

    Supporting staff transitions into online learning: A networking approach

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    As online programmes in higher education continue to grow in number, the literature identifies emerging areas of concern. Whilst appreciating the flexibility and accessibility of online learning, learners often experience challenges in balancing their professional and personal lives whilst studying. In addition, such students have complained that their online educational experiences may be irrelevant and inappropriate, with tutors having limited presence or interest. Online learners’ experiences are contingent upon the skills and characteristics of the tutors, who face the challenges of changing and developing practices, such as taking a more student-centred approach in order to provide opportunities that foster deep learning. Current, familiar practices may no longer be appropriate. There is a need to support tutors as they develop and expand their practices, facilitating familiarity and confidence with the opportunities afforded by a range of technologies. Research indicates that communities of practice as a form of staff development may assist tutors in this transition. This paper shares the early experiences of a recently formed Network for online tutors at Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, Scotland. This community of practice was based upon an adapted Community of Inquiry Framework (Peacock & Cowan, 2016). The Network, endorsed by management, was launched in 2017, with two co-leads, one from an educational development unit and one from the School of Health Science. Sub groups, all led by members of the Network, were subsequently developed to look at specific aspects of online delivery and development within the University. The purpose of the Network and the successes achieved in the first academic year are outlined. The challenges arising in the early stages of implementing the Network are reported, and proposals for progress in the next academic year are discussed. Finally, suggestions are offered to those embarking on a similar endeavour.6pubpub

    How do diverse groups of learners in the health sciences respond to a new virtual learning environment?

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    Funded by the Learning Teaching Support Network for Health SciencesEdinburghAims of the project In the original proposal, the stated aims of this research were to: 'Investigate learners' responses to their first exposure to a new learning experience in a VLE Examine learners' attitudes to the VLE as an effective learning environment through the project Compare and contrast attitudes to a VLE in two different physiotherapy programmes.' Objectives of the project The main objective of the research (as stated in the original proposal) was to provide a detailed analysis into the experience of two specific and differing physiotherapy student cohorts who were new to using VLEs in the learning experience. We aimed to: 'Provide an overview of the literature on the use and value of VLEs in the health sciences. This will focus specifically on initial learner attitudes to Information Technology in learning Conduct a study exploring students' reactions to, and participation in a VLE during the lifetime of the project Identify issues in preparing students in the use of a VLE drawn from diverse groups Evaluate the findings of the study which will: Review students attitudes to the use of a VLE in physiotherapy programmes Highlight individual, social and technical barriers for the meaningful implementation of the VLE from the student perspective Consider the potential for VLEs for the health science community as a whole as well as to the individual lecturer Raise awareness, throughout the duration of the project, of the potential roles of VLE in improving students learning.'CAPAlexander, S. 2001. E-learning developments and experiences. Education and Training, 43 (4/5), pp. 240 - 248. Aspden, L., Helm, P. and Thorpe, L. 2003. Capturing learners' experiences with e-learinng: preliminary findings. 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    Digital identities in ePortfolios: the first-year experience in a higher educational institution

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    Introduction ePortfolios have the potential to promote learning and encourage personal development and digital identity by supporting (a) the learning process, (b) the product of learning and(c) the transition of learners at various stages of the lifelong and life-wide journey -(Barrett & Carney 2005; Ward & Grant 2007; ISLE 2005). This presentation outlines a new study, which explores first-year learners' experience of using ePortfolios with the aim of providing grounded guidelines to support institutional implementation and assist effective student engagement, in order to develop digital identities.CAPpub1107pu
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