29 research outputs found

    Synthetic dimensions in ultracold molecules: quantum strings and membranes

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    Synthetic dimensions alter one of the most fundamental properties in nature, the dimension of space. They allow, for example, a real three-dimensional system to act as effectively four-dimensional. Driven by such possibilities, synthetic dimensions have been engineered in ongoing experiments with ultracold matter. We show that rotational states of ultracold molecules can be used as synthetic dimensions extending to many - potentially hundreds of - synthetic lattice sites. Microwaves coupling rotational states drive fully controllable synthetic inter-site tunnelings, enabling, for example, topological band structures. Interactions leads to even richer behavior: when molecules are frozen in a real space lattice with uniform synthetic tunnelings, dipole interactions cause the molecules to aggregate to a narrow strip in the synthetic direction beyond a critical interaction strength, resulting in a quantum string or a membrane, with an emergent condensate that lives on this string or membrane. All these phases can be detected using measurements of rotational state populations.Comment: 5-page article + 4 figures + references; 7 pages + 4 figures in Supplemen

    Fermat's principle with complex refractive indices and local light-ray rotation

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    We describe local light-ray rotation in terms of complex refractive indices. We show that Fermat's principle holds, and we derive an extended Snell's law. The change in the angle of a light ray with respect to the normal to a refractive-index interface is described by the modulus of the refractive-index ratio, the rotation around the interface normal is described by the argument of the refractive-index ratio.Comment: 3 pages, 2 figure

    Entanglement Spectroscopy and probing the Li-Haldane Conjecture in Topological Quantum Matter

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    Topological phases are characterized by their entanglement properties, which is manifest in a direct relation between entanglement spectra and edge states discovered by Li and Haldane. We propose to leverage the power of synthetic quantum systems for measuring entanglement via the Entanglement Hamiltonian to probe this relationship experimentally. This is made possible by exploiting the quasi-local structure of Entanglement Hamiltonians. The feasibility of this proposal is illustrated for two paradigmatic examples realizable with current technology, an integer quantum Hall state of non-interacting fermions on a 2D lattice and a symmetry protected topological state of interacting fermions on a 1D chain. Our results pave the road towards an experimental identification of topological order in strongly correlated quantum many-body systems.Comment: 11+11 pages, 7+3 figure

    Driven-dissipative four-mode squeezing of multilevel atoms in an optical cavity

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    We utilize multilevel atoms trapped in a driven resonant optical cavity to produce scalable multi-mode squeezed states for quantum sensing and metrology. While superradiance or collective dissipative emission by itself has been typically a detrimental effect for entanglement generation in optical cavities, in the presence of additional drives it can also be used as an entanglement resource. In a recent work [arXiv:2302.10828], we described a protocol for the dissipative generation of two-mode squeezing in the dark state of a six-level system with only one relevant polarization. There we showed that up to two quadratures can be squeezed. Here, we develop a generalized analytic treatment to calculate the squeezing in any multilevel system where atoms can collectively decay by emitting light into two polarization modes in a cavity. We show that in this more general system up to four spin squeezed quadratures can be obtained. We study how finite-size effects constrain the reachable squeezing, and analytically compute the scaling with NN. Our findings are readily testable in current optical cavity experiments with alkaline-earth-like atoms.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures + Appendix; References update