290 research outputs found

    Deep Graph Laplacian Regularization for Robust Denoising of Real Images

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    Recent developments in deep learning have revolutionized the paradigm of image restoration. However, its applications on real image denoising are still limited, due to its sensitivity to training data and the complex nature of real image noise. In this work, we combine the robustness merit of model-based approaches and the learning power of data-driven approaches for real image denoising. Specifically, by integrating graph Laplacian regularization as a trainable module into a deep learning framework, we are less susceptible to overfitting than pure CNN-based approaches, achieving higher robustness to small datasets and cross-domain denoising. First, a sparse neighborhood graph is built from the output of a convolutional neural network (CNN). Then the image is restored by solving an unconstrained quadratic programming problem, using a corresponding graph Laplacian regularizer as a prior term. The proposed restoration pipeline is fully differentiable and hence can be end-to-end trained. Experimental results demonstrate that our work is less prone to overfitting given small training data. It is also endowed with strong cross-domain generalization power, outperforming the state-of-the-art approaches by a remarkable margin

    Cascade Residual Learning: A Two-stage Convolutional Neural Network for Stereo Matching

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    Leveraging on the recent developments in convolutional neural networks (CNNs), matching dense correspondence from a stereo pair has been cast as a learning problem, with performance exceeding traditional approaches. However, it remains challenging to generate high-quality disparities for the inherently ill-posed regions. To tackle this problem, we propose a novel cascade CNN architecture composing of two stages. The first stage advances the recently proposed DispNet by equipping it with extra up-convolution modules, leading to disparity images with more details. The second stage explicitly rectifies the disparity initialized by the first stage; it couples with the first-stage and generates residual signals across multiple scales. The summation of the outputs from the two stages gives the final disparity. As opposed to directly learning the disparity at the second stage, we show that residual learning provides more effective refinement. Moreover, it also benefits the training of the overall cascade network. Experimentation shows that our cascade residual learning scheme provides state-of-the-art performance for matching stereo correspondence. By the time of the submission of this paper, our method ranks first in the KITTI 2015 stereo benchmark, surpassing the prior works by a noteworthy margin.Comment: Accepted at ICCVW 2017. The first two authors contributed equally to this pape

    LSTM Pose Machines

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    We observed that recent state-of-the-art results on single image human pose estimation were achieved by multi-stage Convolution Neural Networks (CNN). Notwithstanding the superior performance on static images, the application of these models on videos is not only computationally intensive, it also suffers from performance degeneration and flicking. Such suboptimal results are mainly attributed to the inability of imposing sequential geometric consistency, handling severe image quality degradation (e.g. motion blur and occlusion) as well as the inability of capturing the temporal correlation among video frames. In this paper, we proposed a novel recurrent network to tackle these problems. We showed that if we were to impose the weight sharing scheme to the multi-stage CNN, it could be re-written as a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). This property decouples the relationship among multiple network stages and results in significantly faster speed in invoking the network for videos. It also enables the adoption of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) units between video frames. We found such memory augmented RNN is very effective in imposing geometric consistency among frames. It also well handles input quality degradation in videos while successfully stabilizes the sequential outputs. The experiments showed that our approach significantly outperformed current state-of-the-art methods on two large-scale video pose estimation benchmarks. We also explored the memory cells inside the LSTM and provided insights on why such mechanism would benefit the prediction for video-based pose estimations.Comment: Poster in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 201

    zkFL: Zero-Knowledge Proof-based Gradient Aggregation for Federated Learning

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    Federated Learning (FL) is a machine learning paradigm, which enables multiple and decentralized clients to collaboratively train a model under the orchestration of a central aggregator. Traditional FL solutions rely on the trust assumption of the centralized aggregator, which forms cohorts of clients in a fair and honest manner. However, a malicious aggregator, in reality, could abandon and replace the client's training models, or launch Sybil attacks to insert fake clients. Such malicious behaviors give the aggregator more power to control clients in the FL setting and determine the final training results. In this work, we introduce zkFL, which leverages zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) to tackle the issue of a malicious aggregator during the training model aggregation process. To guarantee the correct aggregation results, the aggregator needs to provide a proof per round. The proof can demonstrate to the clients that the aggregator executes the intended behavior faithfully. To further reduce the verification cost of clients, we employ a blockchain to handle the proof in a zero-knowledge way, where miners (i.e., the nodes validating and maintaining the blockchain data) can verify the proof without knowing the clients' local and aggregated models. The theoretical analysis and empirical results show that zkFL can achieve better security and privacy than traditional FL, without modifying the underlying FL network structure or heavily compromising the training speed

    Accurate Single Stage Detector Using Recurrent Rolling Convolution

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    Most of the recent successful methods in accurate object detection and localization used some variants of R-CNN style two stage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) where plausible regions were proposed in the first stage then followed by a second stage for decision refinement. Despite the simplicity of training and the efficiency in deployment, the single stage detection methods have not been as competitive when evaluated in benchmarks consider mAP for high IoU thresholds. In this paper, we proposed a novel single stage end-to-end trainable object detection network to overcome this limitation. We achieved this by introducing Recurrent Rolling Convolution (RRC) architecture over multi-scale feature maps to construct object classifiers and bounding box regressors which are "deep in context". We evaluated our method in the challenging KITTI dataset which measures methods under IoU threshold of 0.7. We showed that with RRC, a single reduced VGG-16 based model already significantly outperformed all the previously published results. At the time this paper was written our models ranked the first in KITTI car detection (the hard level), the first in cyclist detection and the second in pedestrian detection. These results were not reached by the previous single stage methods. The code is publicly available.Comment: CVPR 201

    When the Differences in Frequency Domain are Compensated: Understanding and Defeating Modulated Replay Attacks on Automatic Speech Recognition

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    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have been widely deployed in modern smart devices to provide convenient and diverse voice-controlled services. Since ASR systems are vulnerable to audio replay attacks that can spoof and mislead ASR systems, a number of defense systems have been proposed to identify replayed audio signals based on the speakers' unique acoustic features in the frequency domain. In this paper, we uncover a new type of replay attack called modulated replay attack, which can bypass the existing frequency domain based defense systems. The basic idea is to compensate for the frequency distortion of a given electronic speaker using an inverse filter that is customized to the speaker's transform characteristics. Our experiments on real smart devices confirm the modulated replay attacks can successfully escape the existing detection mechanisms that rely on identifying suspicious features in the frequency domain. To defeat modulated replay attacks, we design and implement a countermeasure named DualGuard. We discover and formally prove that no matter how the replay audio signals could be modulated, the replay attacks will either leave ringing artifacts in the time domain or cause spectrum distortion in the frequency domain. Therefore, by jointly checking suspicious features in both frequency and time domains, DualGuard can successfully detect various replay attacks including the modulated replay attacks. We implement a prototype of DualGuard on a popular voice interactive platform, ReSpeaker Core v2. The experimental results show DualGuard can achieve 98% accuracy on detecting modulated replay attacks.Comment: 17 pages, 24 figures, In Proceedings of the 2020 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS' 20