3,067 research outputs found

    Activating the Edge Defragmenting the City of Atlanta

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    Connecting the fragmented urban landscape through the tactical activation of the drosscape, “in-between” spaces, separating communities within the urban fabric. American cities are currently experiencing a period of deindustrialization, factories are moving out of the traditional city center and into the suburban landscape, taking employment opportunities and people with them. The result is a horizontal urbanization that creates conditions of fragmentation and increased separation between communities within the city. Borders and boundaries between communities become increasingly more defined, generated by physical, geographical, political, social, cultural, and economic differences. Strongly defined separations between communities within an urbanized area can bring to light the inequalities and disparities of the city. Historically, when big moves are made in the infrastructure of a city, the underprivileged citizens are often the victims of dispossession and predatory practices. The result is increased unrest, which often leads to protests and in some cases revolutions. The distinction between borders and boundaries along communities and the treatment of such zones needs to be further explored. In addition to the social implications of urban sprawl, as cities expand horizontally, landscape is wasted along the way. Coined as “drosscapes” by Alan Berger, these wasted landscapes provide opportunities to design connections within the urban fabric while minimizing the dispossession of land that often occurs when redeveloping urbanized areas, “design within the margins.” The activation of drosscapes that separate communities and emphasize the fragmentation of the urban landscape offers a new opportunity for design. By focusing architectural interventions along the border zones between communities, greater interaction and connectivity can be promoted within the city. This thesis proposes taking advantage of the leftover spaces that result from horizontal sprawl, by transforming them into zones of integration and increased communication within the urban fabric

    Prevalence of refractive errors, corneal arcus, and blood pressure readings in 2656 Indonesian subjects

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    On a recent eye care mission to Indonesia, epidemiological information was collected on 2656 indigenous patients. Prevalence of refractive errors, corneal arcus and blood pressure readings were recorded and evaluated. The data from three different sites on the island of Java presented with a definite increased pattern of myopia amongst the youth ages 8 to 19. When compared to other nations, the average refractive error of Indonesians was slightly less hyperopic. Against-the- rule astigmatism had the highest occurrence when compared to other axis orientations, yet the overall occurrence of astigmatism was less than that found in western nations. An elevated prevalence of corneal arcus was discovered in this population. Blood pressure was found to be within normal limits when compared to western clinical standards

    Diagnosis of vertebral fractures in children: is a simplified algorithm-based qualitative technique reliable?

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    Background Identification of osteoporotic vertebral fractures allows treatment opportunity reducing future risk. There is no agreed standardised method for diagnosing paediatric vertebral fractures. Objective To evaluate the precision of a modified adult algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) technique, applicable to children with primary or secondary osteoporosis. Materials and methods Three radiologists independently assessed lateral spine radiographs of 50 children with suspected reduction in bone mineral density using a modified ABQ scoring system and following simplification to include only clinically relevant parameters, a simplified ABQ score. A final consensus of all observers using simplified ABQ was performed as a reference standard for fracture characterisation. Kappa was calculated for interobserver agreement of the components of both scoring systems and intraobserver agreement of simplified ABQ based on a second read of 29 randomly selected images. Results Interobserver Kappa for modified ABQ scoring for fracture detection, severity and shape ranged from 0.34 to 0.49 Kappa for abnormal endplate and position assessment was 0.27 to 0.38. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for simplified ABQ scoring for fracture detection and grade ranged from 0.37 to 0.46 and 0.45 to 0.56, respectively. Inter- and intraobserver Kappa for affected endplate ranged from 0.31 to 0.41 and 0.45 to 0.51, respectively. Subjectively, observers’ felt simplified ABQ was easier and less time-consuming. Conclusion Observer reliability of modified and simplified ABQ was similar, with slight to moderate agreement for fracture detection and grade/severity. Due to subjective preference for simplified ABQ, we suggest its use as a semi-objective measure of diagnosing paediatric vertebral fracture

    High impact exercise increased femoral neck bone mineral density in older men: a randomised unilateral intervention

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    Introduction: There is little evidence as towhether exercise can increase BMD in oldermenwith no investigation of high impact exercise. Lifestyle changes and individual variability may confound exercise trials but can be minimised using a within-subject unilateral design (exercise leg [EL] vs. control leg [CL]) that has high statistical power. Purpose: This study investigated the influence of a 12 month high impact unilateral exercise intervention on femoral neck BMD in older men. Methods: Fifty, healthy, community-dwelling older men commenced a 12 month high impact unilateral exercise intervention which increased to 50 multidirectional hops, 7 days a week on one randomly allocated leg. BMD of both femurswasmeasured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after 12 months of exercise, by an observer blind to the leg allocation. Repeated measures ANOVAwith post hoc tests was used to detect significant effects of time, leg and interaction. Results: Thirty-five men (mean±SD, age 69.9±4.0 years) exercised for 12 months and intervention adherence was 90.5±9.1% (304±31 sessions completed out of 336 prescribed sessions). Fourteen men did not complete the 12 month exercise intervention due to: health problems or injuries unrelated to the intervention (n=9), time commitments (n=2), or discomfort during exercise (n=3), whilst BMD data were missing for one man. Femoral neck BMD, BMC and cross-sectional area all increased in the EL (+0.7, +0.9 and +1.2 % respectively) compared to the CL (−0.9,−0.4 and −1.2%); interaction effect Pb0.05. Although the interaction term was not significant (P>0.05), there were significantmain effects of time for sectionmodulus (P=0.044) and minimum neck width (P=0.006). Sectionmodulus increased significantly in the EL (P=0.016) but not in the CL (P=0.465); mean change+2.3% and+0.7% respectively, whereasminimumneck width increased significantly in the CL (P=0.004) but not in the EL (P=0.166); mean changes being +0.7% and +0.3% respectively. Conclusion: A 12 month high impact unilateral exercise intervention was feasible and effective for improving femoral neck BMD, BMC and geometry in older men. Carefully targeted high impact exercises may be suitable for incorporation into exercise interventions aimed at preventing fractures in healthy community-dwelling older men

    Diagnostic accuracy of DXA compared to conventional spine radiographs for the detection of vertebral fractures in children

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    Objectives In children, radiography is performed to diagnose vertebral fractures and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess bone density. In adults, DXA assesses both. We aimed to establish whether DXA can replace spine radiographs in assessment of paediatric vertebral fractures. Methods Prospectively, lateral spine radiographs and lateral spine DXA of 250 children performed on the same day were independently scored by three radiologists using the simplified algorithm based qualitative technique and blinded to results of the other modality. Consensus radiograph read and second read of 100 random images were performed. Diagnostic accuracy, inter/intraobserver and intermodality agreements, patient/carer experience and radiation dose were assessed. Results Average sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) in diagnosing one or more vertebral fractures requiring treatment was 70% (58%-82%) and 97% (94%- 100%) respectively for DXA and 74% (55%-93%) and 96% (95%-98%) for radiographs. Fleiss’ kappa for interobserver and average kappa for intraobserver reliability were 0.371 and 0.631 respectively for DXA and 0.418 and 0.621 for radiographs. Average effective dose was 41.9µSv for DXA and 232.7µSv for radiographs. Image quality was similar. Conclusion Given comparable image quality and non-inferior diagnostic accuracy, lateral spine DXA should replace conventional radiographs for assessment of vertebral fractures in children

    The Influence of High-Impact Exercise on Cortical and Trabecular Bone Mineral Content and 3D Distribution Across the Proximal Femur in Older Men: A Randomized Controlled Unilateral Intervention.

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    Regular exercisers have lower fracture risk, despite modest effects of exercise on bone mineral content (BMC). Exercise may produce localized cortical and trabecular bone changes that affect bone strength independently of BMC. We previously demonstrated that brief, daily unilateral hopping exercises increased femoral neck BMC in the exercise leg versus the control leg of older men. This study evaluated the effects of these exercises on cortical and trabecular bone and its 3D distribution across the proximal femur, using clinical CT. Fifty healthy men had pelvic CT scans before and after the exercise intervention. We used hip QCT analysis to quantify BMC in traditional regions of interest and estimate biomechanical variables. Cortical bone mapping localized cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density changes across each proximal femur, which involved registration to a canonical proximal femur model. Following statistical parametric mapping, we visualized and quantified statistically significant changes of variables over time in both legs, and significant differences between legs. Thirty-four men aged mean (SD) 70 (4) years exercised for 12-months, attending 92% of prescribed sessions. In traditional regions of interest, cortical and trabecular BMC increased over time in both legs. Cortical BMC at the trochanter increased more in the exercise than control leg, whereas femoral neck buckling ratio declined more in the exercise than control leg. Across the entire proximal femur, cortical mass surface density increased significantly with exercise (2.7%; p 6%) at anterior and posterior aspects of the femoral neck and anterior shaft. Endocortical trabecular density also increased (6.4%; p 12% at the anterior femoral neck, trochanter, and inferior femoral head. Odd impact exercise increased cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density, at regions that may be important to structural integrity. These exercise-induced changes were localized rather than being evenly distributed across the proximal femur.This research was financially supported by a National Osteoporosis Innovative Award, Medical Research Council UK Interdisciplinary Bridging Award, and a Loughborough University Scholarship. KESP acknowledges support of the Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.249

    The influence of high impact exercise on cortical and trabecular bone mineral content and 3D distribution across the proximal femur in older men: a randomised controlled unilateral intervention

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    Regular exercisers have lower fracture risk, despite modest effects of exercise on BMC. Exercise may produce localised cortical and trabecular bone changes that affect bone strength independently of BMC. We previously demonstrated that brief, daily unilateral hopping exercises increased femoral neck BMC in the exercise leg versus the control leg of older men. This study evaluated the effects of these exercises on cortical and trabecular bone and its 3D distribution across the proximal femur, using clinical computed tomography (CT). Fifty healthy men had pelvic CT scans before and after the exercise intervention. We used hip QCT analysis to quantify BMC in traditional regions of interest and estimate biomechanical variables. Cortical bone mapping localised cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density changes across each proximal femur, which involved registration to a canonical proximal femur model. Following statistical parametric mapping, we visualised and quantified statistically significant changes of variables over time in both legs, and significant differences between legs. Thirty-four men aged 70 (4) years exercised for 12-months, attending 92% of prescribed sessions. In traditional ROIs, cortical and trabecular BMC increased over time in both legs. Cortical BMC at the trochanter increased more in the exercise than control leg, whilst femoral neck buckling ratio declined more in the exercise than control leg. Across the entire proximal femur, cortical mass surface density increased significantly with exercise (2.7%; P 6%) at anterior and posterior aspects of the femoral neck and anterior shaft. Endocortical trabecular density also increased (6.4%; P 12% at the anterior femoral neck, trochanter and inferior femoral head. Odd impact exercise increased cortical mass surface density and endocortical trabecular density, at regions that may be important to structural integrity. These exercise-induced changes were localised rather than being evenly distributed across the proximal femur. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

    CSF1R-dependent macrophages control postnatal somatic growth and organ maturation

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    Homozygous mutation of the Csf1r locus (Csf1rko) in mice, rats and humans leads to multiple postnatal developmental abnormalities. To enable analysis of the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic impacts of Csf1r mutation, we bred a rat Csf1rko allele to the inbred dark agouti (DA) genetic background and to a Csf1r-mApple reporter transgene. The Csf1rko led to almost complete loss of embryonic macrophages and ablation of most adult tissue macrophage populations. We extended previous analysis of the Csf1rko phenotype to early postnatal development to reveal impacts on musculoskeletal development and proliferation and morphogenesis in multiple organs. Expression profiling of 3-week old wild-type (WT) and Csf1rko livers identified 2760 differentially expressed genes associated with the loss of macrophages, severe hypoplasia, delayed hepatocyte maturation, disrupted lipid metabolism and the IGF1/IGF binding protein system. Older Csf1rko rats developed severe hepatic steatosis. Consistent with the developmental delay in the liver Csf1rko rats had greatly-reduced circulating IGF1. Transfer of WT bone marrow (BM) cells at weaning without conditioning repopulated resident macrophages in all organs, including microglia in the brain, and reversed the mutant phenotypes enabling long term survival and fertility. WT BM transfer restored osteoclasts, eliminated osteopetrosis, restored bone marrow cellularity and architecture and reversed granulocytosis and B cell deficiency. Csf1rko rats had an elevated circulating CSF1 concentration which was rapidly reduced to WT levels following BM transfer. However, CD43hi non-classical monocytes, absent in the Csf1rko, were not rescued and bone marrow progenitors remained unresponsive to CSF1. The results demonstrate that the Csf1rko phenotype is autonomous to BM-derived cells and indicate that BM contains a progenitor of tissue macrophages distinct from hematopoietic stem cells. The model provides a unique system in which to define the pathways of development of resident tissue macrophages and their local and systemic roles in growth and organ maturation

    Assessing Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Disability: Evaluation of the Parenting Morale Index and Family Impact of Childhood Disability Scale

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    Objective Process model of stress and coping guided psychometric assessment of two brief measures of psychological well-being: Parenting Morale Index (PMI); Family Impact of Childhood Disability (FICD) scale. Methods Canadian mothers (N = 195) of children with disability (CWD) completed PMI, FICD, and validation measures (Brief Family Assessment Measure [FAM], Personal Well-Being Index, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Desirability Scale) via computer-assisted telephone interview. Of these, 154 completed additional validation measures (Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Family Hardiness Index, Brief FAM) 1 year later. Results Factor structures of PMI and FICD were supported; both demonstrated internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity. After 1 year, PMI and FICD jointly predicted depressive symptoms, parenting stress, family hardiness, and family adjustment. Conclusion PMI and FICD can identify mothers of CWD at risk for poor psychological well-being to increase the specificity of supports
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