6 research outputs found

    Kirjaintyypin luettavuus : ja Juhani sans -kirjaintyypin luominen

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    T√§m√§n toiminnallisen opinn√§ytety√∂n projektiosuutena oli p√§√§tteett√∂m√§n kirjaintyypin suunnittelu. Lopullinen suunnittelu sis√§lt√§√§ suur- ja pienaakkosista kirjaimet a‚ąí√∂ eli ns. suomalaiset aakkoset. Projektiosuuden kirjaintyyppi Juhani Sans on osittain suunniteltu teoriaosuuden havaintojen ja p√§√§telmien pohjalta. Projektin tarkoituksena oli kirjaintyyppisuunnittelun prosessin oppiminen ja kirjainten ominaisuuksiin tutustuminen. Opinn√§ytety√∂n teoriaosuus toimi t√§ss√§ vahvana tukena. Toiminnallisen osuuden raportissa k√§yd√§√§n l√§pi kirjaintyyppien suunnittelussa k√§ytett√§v√§n FontLab -ohjelman ominaisuuksia. Teoriaosuudessa perehdyt√§√§n kirjaintyyppien ominaisuuksiin luettavuusn√§k√∂kulmasta,pohditaan eri typografisten konventioiden vaikutusta kirjaintyypin luettavuuteen ja menestykseen, sek√§ tarkastellaan lukemisen eri teorioita ja niiden paikkansapit√§vyytt√§. Teoriaosuuden viitekehyksen√§ toimii kirjallisuuskatsaus typografia-aiheiseen l√§hdeaineistoon. Prosessin aikana opin paljon kirjaintyyppien suunnittelusta ja luettavuutta k√§sittelevist√§ teorioista. T√§m√§n lis√§ksi minulla on nyt my√∂s vankka tietopohja lukemisteorian perusteista, lukemisen fysiikasta ja siit√§, miten t√§rke√§√§ luettavan tekstin tuottaminen on. Uuden kirjaintyypin suunnittelu oli arvokas kokemus, jonka ansiosta minulle muodostui kokonaiskuva kirjainsuunnittelusta ja sen s√§√§nn√∂ist√§ sek√§ ohjeista.The objective of the present thesis was to create a sans serif typeface. The final design includes both upper and lower case letters from a to √∂, namely the so called Finnish alphabet. The typeface called Juhani is partially designed on the basis of the observations made in the theoretical section of this thesis. The purpose of this project was to learn the process of designing typefaces and to get acquainted with the letters‚Äô different features; the theoretical section worked as an important source of information and support. The report of the project includes a summary on the features of a computer software for the typeface design called FontLab. The theoretical section includes an introduction to the features of typefaces from the perspective of readability and legibility. It also reflects on the different typeface design conventions and their effect on readability, legibility and success. This section also introduces a summary of different theories concerning reading. Also a literal overview on the typeface-themed source material is conducted. During this process, I‚Äôve received a lot of information about typeface design and the theory behind readability and legibility. I have also learned the basics of how we read, the physics behind it, and how important it is to make legible text. Designing a new typeface was a valuable learning experience, which lead to the ability to see the bigger picture behind the rules and regulations of designing typefaces.Ty√∂h√∂n kuuluu fonttitiedosto

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

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    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms

    Time points and risk factors for RhD immunizations after the implementation of targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis:a retrospective nationwide cohort study

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    Abstract Background: Targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis was introduced to the national prophylaxis program in Finland in late 2013. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, time-points, and risk factors for Rhesus D immunization after the implementation of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis, in all women in Finland with antenatal anti-D antibodies detected in 2014‚Äď2017. Material and methods: In a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, the incidence, time-points, and risk factors of anti-D immunizations were analyzed. Information on antenatal screening was obtained from the Finnish Red Cross Blood Service database, and obstetric data from hospital records and the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Results: The study included a total of 228 women (197 with complete data for all pregnancies). After the implementation of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis, the prevalence of pregnancies with anti-D antibodies decreased from 1.52% in 2014 to 0.88% in 2017, and the corresponding incidence of new immunizations decreased from 0.33% to 0.10%. Time-points for detection of new anti-D antibodies before and after 2014 were the first screening sample at 8‚Äď12 weeks of gestation in 52% vs 19%, the second sample at 24‚Äď26 weeks in 20% vs 50%, and the third screening at 36 weeks in 28% vs 32%. Conclusions: The incidence of new anti-D immunizations decreased as expected after the implementation of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. True failures are rare and they mainly occur when the prophylaxis is not given appropriately, suggesting a need for constant education of healthcare professionals on the subject

    Noninvasive fetal RHD genotyping to guide targeted anti-D prophylaxis-an external quality assessment workshop.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article click on the hyperlink belowBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fetal RHD genotyping of cell-free fetal DNA from RhD-negative pregnant women can be used to guide targeted antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis for the prevention of RhD immunization. To assure the quality of clinical testing, we conducted an external quality assessment workshop with the participation of 28 laboratories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aliquots of pooled maternal plasma were sent to each laboratory. One sample was positive, and the second sample was negative for fetal RHD, verified by pre-workshop testing using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of RHD exons 4, 5, 7 and 10. Plasma samples were shipped at room temperature. A reporting scheme was supplied for data collection, including questions regarding the methodological setup, results and clinical recommendations. Different methodological approaches were used, all employing qPCR with a total of eight different combinations of RHD exon targets. The samples were tested blindly. RESULTS: Fetal RHD genotyping was performed with no false-negative and no false-positive results. One inconclusive result was reported for the RHD-positive sample, and four inconclusive results were reported for the RHD-negative sample. All clinical conclusions were satisfactory. CONCLUSION: This external quality assessment workshop demonstrates that despite the different approaches taken to perform the clinical assays, fetal RHD genotyping is a reliable laboratory assay to guide targeted use of Rh prophylaxis in a clinical setting
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