1,271 research outputs found

    Some Aspects of Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) Formulations for the Euler Equations, Part 3

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    An essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) formulation is described for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. ENO approaches are based on smart interpolation to avoid spurious numerical oscillations. ENO schemes are a superset of Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes. In the recent past, TVD formulations were used to construct shock capturing finite difference methods. At extremum points of the solution, TVD schemes automatically reduce to being first-order accurate discretizations locally, while away from extrema they can be constructed to be of higher order accuracy. The new framework helps construct essentially non-oscillatory finite difference methods without recourse to local reductions of accuracy to first order. Thus arbitrarily high orders of accuracy can be obtained. The basic general ideas of the new approach can be specialized in several ways and one specific implementation is described based on: (1) the integral form of the conservation laws; (2) reconstruction based on the primitive functions; (3) extension to multiple dimensions in a tensor product fashion; and (4) Runge-Kutta time integration. The resulting method is fourth-order accurate in time and space and is applicable to uniform Cartesian grids. The construction of such schemes for scalar equations and systems in one and two space dimensions is described along with several examples which illustrate interesting aspects of the new approach

    Multi-Dimensional ENO Schemes for General Geometries

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    A class of ENO schemes is presented for the numerical solution of multidimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in structured and unstructured grids. This is a class of shock-capturing schemes which are designed to compute cell-averages to high order accuracy. The ENO scheme is composed of a piecewise-polynomial reconstruction of the solution form its given cell-averages, approximate evolution of the resulting initial value problem, and averaging of this approximate solution over each cell. The reconstruction algorithm is based on an adaptive selection of stencil for each cell so as to avoid spurious oscillations near discontinuities while achieving high order of accuracy away from them

    Tropical rainforest bird community structure in relation to altitude, tree species composition, and null models in the Western Ghats, India

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    Studies of species distributions on elevational gradients are essential to understand principles of community organisation as well as to conserve species in montane regions. This study examined the patterns of species richness, abundance, composition, range sizes, and distribution of rainforest birds at 14 sites along an elevational gradient (500-1400 m) in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) of the Western Ghats, India. In contrast to theoretical expectation, resident bird species richness did not change significantly with elevation although the species composition changed substantially (<10% similarity) between the lowest and highest elevation sites. Constancy in species richness was possibly due to relative constancy in productivity and lack of elevational trends in vegetation structure. Elevational range size of birds, expected to increase with elevation according to Rapoport's rule, was found to show a contrasting inverse U-shaped pattern because species with narrow elevational distributions, including endemics, occurred at both ends of the gradient (below 800 m and above 1,200 m). Bird species composition also did not vary randomly along the gradient as assessed using a hierarchy of null models of community assembly, from completely unconstrained models to ones with species richness and range-size distribution restrictions. Instead, bird community composition was significantly correlated with elevation and tree species composition of sites, indicating the influence of deterministic factors on bird community structure. Conservation of low- and high-elevation areas and maintenance of tree species composition against habitat alteration are important for bird conservation in the southern Western Ghats rainforests.Comment: 36 pages, 5 figures, two tables (including one in the appendix) Submitted to the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS

    A user guide for the EMTAC-MZ CFD code

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    The computer code (EMTAC-MZ) was applied to investigate the flow field over a variety of very complex three-dimensional (3-D) configurations across the Mach number range (subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow). In the code, a finite volume, multizone implementation of high accuracy, total variation diminishing (TVD) formulation (based on Roe's scheme) is used to solve the unsteady Euler equations. In the supersonic regions of the flow, an infinitely large time step and a space-marching scheme is employed. A finite time step and a relaxation or 3-D approximate factorization method is used in subsonic flow regions. The multizone technique allows very complicated configurations to be modeled without geometry modifications, and can easily handle combined internal and external flow problems. An elliptic grid generation package is built into the EMTAC-MZ code. To generate the computational grid, only the surface geometry data are required. Results obtained for a variety of configurations, such as fighter-like configurations (F-14, AVSTOL), flow through inlet, multi-bodies (shuttle with external tank and SRBs), are reported and shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data

    Majorana spin-flip transitions in a magnetic trap

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    Atoms confined in a magnetic trap can escape by making spin-flip Majorana transitions due to a breakdown of the adiabatic approximation. Several papers have studied this process for atoms with spin F=1/2F = 1/2 or F=1F= 1. The present paper calculates the escape rate for atoms with spin F>1F > 1. This problem has new features because the perturbation ΔT\Delta T which allows atoms to escape satisfies a selection rule ΔFz=0,±1,±2\Delta F_z = 0, \pm 1, \pm 2 and multi-step processes contribute in leading order. When the adiabatic approximation is satisfied the leading order terms can be summed to yield a simple expression for the escape rate.Comment: 16page

    Development of upwind schemes for the Euler equations

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    Described are many algorithmic and computational aspects of upwind schemes and their second-order accurate formulations based on Total-Variation-Diminishing (TVD) approaches. An operational unification of the underlying first-order scheme is first presented encompassing Godunov's, Roe's, Osher's, and Split-Flux methods. For higher order versions, the preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to constructing TVD discretizations are considered. TVD formulations can be used to construct relaxation methods for unfactored implicit upwind schemes, which in turn can be exploited to construct space-marching procedures for even the unsteady Euler equations. A major part of the report describes time- and space-marching procedures for solving the Euler equations in 2-D, 3-D, Cartesian, and curvilinear coordinates. Along with many illustrative examples, several results of efficient computations on 3-D supersonic flows with subsonic pockets are presented

    The line transect method for estimating densities of large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest: An evaluation of models and field experiments

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    We have evaluated techniques of estimating animal density through direct counts using line transects during 1988-92 in the tropical deciduous forests of Mudumalui Sanctuary in southern India for four species of large herbivorous mammals, namely, chital (Axis axis). sambar (Cervus unicolor). Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and gaur (Bos gaurus) Density estimates derived from the Fourier Series and the Half-Normal models consistently had the lowest coefficient of variation. These two models also generated similar mean density estimates. For the Fourier Series estimator, appropriate cut-off widths for analyzing line transect data for the four species are suggested. Grouping data into various distance classes did not produce any appreciable differences in estimates of mean density or their variances, although model fit is generally better when data arc placed in fewer groups. The sampling effort needed to achieve a desired precision (coefficient of variation) in the density estimate is derived. A sampling effort of 800 km of transects returned a 10% coefficient of variation on estimate for ehital; for the other species a higher effort was needed to achieve this level of precision. There was no statistically significant relationship between detectability of a group and the size of the group for any species. Density estimates along roads were generally significantly different from those in the interior of the forest, indicating that road-side counts many not be appropriate for most species

    Multichannel coupling with supersymmetric quantum mechanics and exactly-solvable model for Feshbach resonance

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    A new type of supersymmetric transformations of the coupled-channel radial Schroedinger equation is introduced, which do not conserve the vanishing behavior of solutions at the origin. Contrary to usual transformations, these ``non-conservative'' transformations allow, in the presence of thresholds, the construction of potentials with coupled scattering matrices from uncoupled potentials. As an example, an exactly-solvable potential matrix is obtained which provides a very simple model of Feshbach-resonance phenomenon.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figure
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