2,542 research outputs found

    Hierarchically Clustered Representation Learning

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    The joint optimization of representation learning and clustering in the embedding space has experienced a breakthrough in recent years. In spite of the advance, clustering with representation learning has been limited to flat-level categories, which often involves cohesive clustering with a focus on instance relations. To overcome the limitations of flat clustering, we introduce hierarchically-clustered representation learning (HCRL), which simultaneously optimizes representation learning and hierarchical clustering in the embedding space. Compared with a few prior works, HCRL firstly attempts to consider a generation of deep embeddings from every component of the hierarchy, not just leaf components. In addition to obtaining hierarchically clustered embeddings, we can reconstruct data by the various abstraction levels, infer the intrinsic hierarchical structure, and learn the level-proportion features. We conducted evaluations with image and text domains, and our quantitative analyses showed competent likelihoods and the best accuracies compared with the baselines.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, Under review as a conference pape

    Current Status of Image-Enhanced Endoscopy for Early Identification of Esophageal Neoplasms

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    Advanced esophageal cancer is known to have a poor prognosis. The early detection of esophageal neoplasms, including esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer, is highly important for the accurate treatment of the disease. However, esophageal dysplasia and early esophageal cancer are usually subtle and can be easily missed. In addition to the early detection, proper pretreatment evaluation of the depth of invasion of esophageal cancer is very important for curative treatment. The progression of non-invasive diagnosis via image-enhanced endoscopy techniques has been shown to aid the early detection and estimate the depth of invasion of early esophageal cancer and, as a result, may provide additional opportunities for curative treatment. Here, we review the advancement of image-enhanced endoscopy-related technologies and their role in the early identification of esophageal neoplasms

    Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome following Surgical Correction of Scoliosis

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    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: To more accurately determine the incidence and clarify risk factors. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is one of the possible complications following correctional operation for scoliosis. However, when preliminary symptoms are vague, the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome may be easily missed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using clinical data from 118 patients (43 men and 75 women) who underwent correctional operations for scoliosis between September 2001 and August 2007. The mean patient age was 15.9 years (range 9~24 years). The risk factors under scrutiny were the patient body mass index (BMI), change in Cobb's angle, and trunk length. RESULTS: The incidence of subjects confirmed to have obstruction was 2.5%. However, the rate increased to 7.6% with the inclusion of the 6 subjects who only showed clinical symptoms of obstruction without confirmative study. The BMI for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 18.4+/-3.4 and 14.6+/-3, respectively. The change in Cobb's angle for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 24.8+/-13.6 degrees and 23.4+/-9.1 degrees , respectively. The change in trunk length for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.3+/-2.1 cm and 4.5+/-4.8 cm, respectively. Differences in Cobb's angle and the change in trunk length between the two groups did not reach statistical significance, although there was a greater increase in trunk length for the symptomatic group than for the asymptomatic group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the incidence of superior mesenteric artery syndrome may be greater than the previously accepted rate of 4.7%. Therefore, in the face of any early signs or symptoms of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, prompt recognition and treatment are necessaryope