3,228 research outputs found

    Investigating Linguistic Pattern Ordering in Hierarchical Natural Language Generation

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    Natural language generation (NLG) is a critical component in spoken dialogue system, which can be divided into two phases: (1) sentence planning: deciding the overall sentence structure, (2) surface realization: determining specific word forms and flattening the sentence structure into a string. With the rise of deep learning, most modern NLG models are based on a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model, which basically contains an encoder-decoder structure; these NLG models generate sentences from scratch by jointly optimizing sentence planning and surface realization. However, such simple encoder-decoder architecture usually fail to generate complex and long sentences, because the decoder has difficulty learning all grammar and diction knowledge well. This paper introduces an NLG model with a hierarchical attentional decoder, where the hierarchy focuses on leveraging linguistic knowledge in a specific order. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the traditional seq2seq model with a smaller model size, and the design of the hierarchical attentional decoder can be applied to various NLG systems. Furthermore, different generation strategies based on linguistic patterns are investigated and analyzed in order to guide future NLG research work.Comment: accepted by the 7th IEEE Workshop on Spoken Language Technology (SLT 2018). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1808.0274

    Learning Multi-Level Information for Dialogue Response Selection by Highway Recurrent Transformer

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    With the increasing research interest in dialogue response generation, there is an emerging branch formulating this task as selecting next sentences, where given the partial dialogue contexts, the goal is to determine the most probable next sentence. Following the recent success of the Transformer model, this paper proposes (1) a new variant of attention mechanism based on multi-head attention, called highway attention, and (2) a recurrent model based on transformer and the proposed highway attention, so-called Highway Recurrent Transformer. Experiments on the response selection task in the seventh Dialog System Technology Challenge (DSTC7) show the capability of the proposed model of modeling both utterance-level and dialogue-level information; the effectiveness of each module is further analyzed as well