4,688 research outputs found

    Power Spectrum Analysis of LMSU (Lomonosov Moscow State University) Nuclear Decay-Rate Data: Further Indication of r-Mode Oscillations in an Inner Solar Tachocline

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    This article presents a power-spectrum analysis of 2,350 measurements of the 90^{90}Sr/90^{90}Y decay process acquired over the interval 4 August 2002 to 6 February 2009 at the Lomonosov Moscow State University (LMSU). As we have found for other long sequences of decay measurements, the power spectrum is dominated by a very strong annual oscillation. However, we also find a set of low-frequency peaks, ranging from 0.26 year1^{-1} to 3.98 year1^{-1}, which are very similar to an array of peaks in a power spectrum formed from Mt Wilson solar diameter measurements. The Mt Wilson measurements have been interpreted in terms of r-mode oscillations in a region where the sidereal rotation frequency is 12.08 year1^{-1}. We find that the LMSU measurements may also be attributed to the same type of r-mode oscillations in a solar region with the same sidereal rotation frequency. We propose that these oscillations occur in an inner tachocline that separates the radiative zone from a more slowly rotating solar core.Comment: 5 pages, 8 figures. v2 corrects three typographical errors on page 3, including the missing list of r-modes in sec. 3, para

    Comparative analysis of Gallex and GNO solar neutrino data

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    Since the GALLEX and GNO datasets were derived from closely related experiments, there is a natural tendency to merge them. This is perhaps appropriate for any analysis based on the hypothesis that the solar neutrino flux is constant, but it is not necessarily appropriate for an analysis that allows for possible variability, since the GALLEX and GNO experiments belong to different solar cycles. Moreover, we find significant differences between the GALLEX and GNO datasets. It appears, from inspection of the time series and histograms, that GNO measurements are compatible with the assumption that the solar neutrino flux is constant, but GALLEX measurements are not. Furthermore, power-spectrum analysis yields evidence of rotational modulation in GALLEX data but not in GNO data. We compare our results with those of Pandola, who claims that GALLEX-GNO data show no evidence for variability.Comment: 20 pages plus 6 tables plus 11 figure

    Evidence for Solar Neutrino Flux Variability and its Implications

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    Althogh KamLAND apparently rules out Resonant-Spin-Flavor-Precession (RSFP) as an explanation of the solar neutrino deficit, the solar neutrino fluxes in the Cl and Ga experiments appear to vary with solar rotation. Added to this evidence, summarized here, a power spectrum analysis of the Super-Kamiokande data reveals significant variation in the flux matching a dominant rotation rate observed in the solar magnetic field in the same time period. Three frequency peaks, all related to this rotation rate, can be explained quantitatively. A Super-Kamiokande paper reported no time variation of the flux, but showed the same peaks, there interpreted as statistically insignificant, due to an inappropriate analysis. This modulation is small (7%) in the Super-Kamiokande energy region (and below the sensitivity of the Super-Kamiokande analysis) and is consistent with RSFP as a subdominant neutrino process in the convection zone. The data display effects that correspond to solar-cycle changes in the magnetic field, typical of the convection zone. This subdominant process requires new physics: a large neutrino transition magnetic moment and a light sterile neutrino, since an effect of this amplitude occurring in the convection zone cannot be achieved with the three known neutrinos. It does, however, resolve current problems in providing fits to all experimental estimates of the mean neutrino flux, and is compatible with the extensive evidence for solar neutrino flux variability.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figures (5 in color); new figure, data added to another figure, more clarification, especially on the origin of the effect and its connection to sterile neutrinos; v3 is updated, especially using the results of hep-ph/0402194; v4 is a further update, mainly of references, with a small change to make the title more appropriate; v5 includes more clarification and the result of now having hep-ph/0411148 and hep-ph/0501205 and so increases the length; v6 has a small change in the title and some additional information at the referee's request to correspond to the version to be published in Astroparticle Physic

    False-alarm probability in relation to over-sampled power spectra, with application to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data

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    The term "false-alarm probability" denotes the probability that at least one out of M independent power values in a prescribed search band of a power spectrum computed from a white-noise time series is expected to be as large as or larger than a given value. The usual formula is based on the assumption that powers are distributed exponentially, as one expects for power measurements of normally distributed random noise. However, in practice one typically examines peaks in an over-sampled power spectrum. It is therefore more appropriate to compare the strength of a particular peak with the distribution of peaks in over-sampled power spectra derived from normally distributed random noise. We show that this leads to a formula for the false-alarm probability that is more conservative than the familiar formula. We also show how to combine these results with a Bayesian method for estimating the probability of the null hypothesis (that there is no oscillation in the time series), and we discuss as an example the application of these procedures to Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino data

    Analysis of Super-Kamiokande 5-day Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux

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    Data in 5-day bins, recently released by the Super-Kamiodande Consortium, has been analyzed by a likelihood procedure that has certain advantages over the Lomb-Scargle procedure used by the consortium. The two most prominent peaks in the power spectrum of the 10-day data were at 9.42 y-1 and 26.57 y-1, and it was clear that one was an alias of the other caused by the regularity of the binning. There were reasons to believe that the 9.42 y-1 peak was an alias of the 26.57 y-1 peak, but analysis of the 5-day data makes it clear that the reverse is the case. In addition to a strong peak near 9.42 y-1, we find peaks at 43.72 y-1and at 39.28 y-1. After comparing this analysis with a power-spectrum analysis of magnetic-field data, we suggest that these three peaks may be attributed to a harmonic of the solar rotation rate and to an r-mode oscillation with spherical harmonic indices l = 2, m = 2.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journa