78 research outputs found

    Neuroticism explains unwanted variance in Implicit Association Tests of personality: possible evidence for an affective valence confound

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    Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling (SEM), latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- and peer-report) were estimated and their predictive value for unwanted variance in the IAT was examined. In a first analysis, unwanted variance was defined in the sense of method-specific variance which may result from differences in task demands between the two IAT block conditions and which can be mirrored by the absolute size of the IAT effects. In a second analysis, unwanted variance was examined in a broader sense defined as those systematic variance components in the raw IAT scores that are not explained by the latent implicit personality factors. In contrast to the absolute IAT scores, this also considers biases associated with the direction of IAT effects (i.e., whether they are positive or negative in sign), biases that might result, for example, from the IAT's stimulus or category features. None of the explicit Big-Five factors was predictive for method-specific variance in the IATs (first analysis). However, when considering unwanted variance that goes beyond pure method-specific variance (second analysis), a substantial effect of neuroticism occurred that may have been driven by the affective valence of IAT attribute categories and the facilitated processing of negative stimuli, typically associated with neuroticism. The findings thus point to the necessity of using attribute category labels and stimuli of similar affective valence in personality IATs to avoid confounding due to recoding

    Embodied Digital Technologies: First Insights in the Social and Legal Perception of Robots and Users of Prostheses

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    New bionic technologies and robots are becoming increasingly common in workspaces and private spheres. It is thus crucial to understand concerns regarding their use in social and legal terms and the qualities they should possess to be accepted as 'co-workers'. Previous research in these areas used the Stereotype Content Model to investigate, for example, attributions of Warmth and Competence towards people who use bionic prostheses, cyborgs, and robots. In the present study, we propose to differentiate the Warmth dimension into the dimensions of Sociability and Morality to gain deeper insight into how people with or without bionic prostheses are perceived. In addition, we extend our research to the perception of robots. Since legal aspects need to be considered if robots are expected to be 'co-workers', for the first time, we also evaluated current perceptions of robots in terms of legal aspects. We conducted two studies: In Study 1, participants rated visual stimuli of individuals with or without disabilities and low- or high-tech prostheses, and robots of different levels of Anthropomorphism in terms of perceived Competence, Sociability, and Morality. In Study 2, participants rated robots of different levels of Anthropomorphism in terms of perceived Competence, Sociability, and Morality, and additionally, Legal Personality, and Decision-Making Authority. We also controlled for participants' personality. Results showed that attributions of Competence and Morality varied as a function of the technical sophistication of the prostheses. For robots, Competence attributions were negatively related to Anthropomorphism. Perception of Sociability, Morality, Legal Personality, and Decision-Making Authority varied as functions of Anthropomorphism. Overall, this study contributes to technological design, which aims to ensure high acceptance and minimal undesirable side effects, both with regard to the application of bionic instruments and robotics. Additionally, first insights into whether more anthropomorphized robots will need to be considered differently in terms of legal practice are given

    The relation between Self-Control, Need for Cognition and Action Orientation in secondary school students: A conceptual replication study

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    Self-Control can be defined as the self-initiated effortful process that enables individuals to resist temptation impulses. It is relevant for conducting a healthy and successful life. For university students, Grass et al. (2019) found that Need for Cognition as the tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, and Action Orientation as the flexible recruitment of control resources in cognitively demanding situations, predict Self-Control. Further, Action Orientation partially mediated the relation between Need for Cognition and Self-Control. In the present conceptual replication study, we investigated the relations between Self-Control, Need for Cognition, and Action Orientation in adolescence (N = 892 9th graders) as a pivotal period for the development of Self-control. We replicated the findings that Need for Cognition and Action Orientation predict Self-Control and that Action Orientation partially mediates the relation between Need for Cognition and Self-Control. In addition, Action Orientation moderates the relation between Need for Cognition and Self-Control. This result implies that in more action-oriented students Need for Cognition more strongly predicted Self-Control than in less action-oriented students. Our findings strengthen theoretical assumptions that Need for Cognition and Action Orientation are important cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the successful exertion of Self-Control

    Body Matters:Exploration of the Human Body as a Resource for the Design of Technologies for Meditation

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    Much research on meditation has shown its significant benefits for wellbeing. In turn, there has been growing HCI interest for the design of novel interactive technologies intended to facilitate meditation in real-time. In many of these systems, physiological signals have been mapped onto creative audiovisual feedback, however, there has been limited attention to the experiential qualities of meditation and the specific role that the body may play in them. In this paper, we report on workshops with 24 experts exploring the bodily sensations that emerge during meditation. Through material speculation, participants shared their lived experience of meditation and identified key stages during which they may benefit from additional aid, often multimodal. Findings emphasize the importance of recreating mindful physical sensations during moments of mind-wandering; in particular for supporting the regulation of attention through a range of embodied metaphors and haptic feedback, tailored to key transitions in the meditation process

    Das Diagnoseinstrument zur Erfassung der Interviewerkompetenz in der Personalauswahl (DIPA) - Entwicklung, empirische PrĂĽfungen und Akzeptanz in der Praxis

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    Trotz vorhandener umfangreicher Erkenntnisse und Gestaltungsempfehlungen zum Eignungsinterview zeigen sich nach wie vor gravierende Mängel beim Transfer in die Praxis. Der Interviewer selbst stellt dabei einen entscheidenden Einflussfaktor auf die Güte des Interviews dar. Gerade der Aspekt der Erfahrung, der weithin als förderlich für die Qualität betrachtet wird, hat sich häufig als problematisch erwiesen. Das Wissen über die Einflüsse auf Interviews oder eine einmalige Schulung reichen nicht aus, um die Qualität des Interviewervorgehens zu sichern. Es fehlt ein kontinuierliches Feedback für den Interviewer, welches sich im Arbeitsalltag mit vertretbarem Aufwand realisieren lässt. Hier setzt das Diagnoseinstrument zur Erfassung der Interviewerkompetenz in der Personalauswahl (DIPA) an. Es ermöglicht differenzierte und konkrete Rückmeldungen zum Interviewerverhalten bei Planung, Durchführung und Auswertung von Eignungsgesprächen. Für die Beurteilung des Interviewerverhaltens stehen dem Anwender Verhalten beschreibende und allgemeinverständliche Items mit vorgegebenen Antwortkategorien zur Verfügung, die jeweils anzukreuzen sind. Eine Profillösung, entwickelt über eine mehrstufige Expertenbefragung, hat für jedes im Instrument aufgeführte Item eine Bewertungsskala von 0 (inakzeptabel), 1 (problematisch), 2 (akzeptabel) bis 3 (optimal), die über farblich kodierte Auswertungsfolien dem Anwender einen schnell zugänglichen und leicht nachvollziehbaren Überblick über eigene Stärken und Schwächen ermöglicht. Das DIPA wurde in sieben Studien geprüft, wobei sukzessive Verbesserungen aufgrund der Ergebnisse und der Rückmeldungen der Teilnehmer vorgenommen wurden. Teilnehmer waren jeweils praktisch tätige Eignungsdiagnostiker sowie Studierende im Hauptfach Psychologie. Zunächst wurde geprüft, ob sich die angestrebte Form des DIPA grundsätzlich für die Diagnose von Interviewerkompetenz eignet. Dies konnte weitgehend bestätigt werden, weshalb in den Studien 2-4 Objektivität, Retest-Reliabilität und Validität sowie ökonomische und praktische Aspekte der einzelnen Instrumentteile geprüft wurden. Die Ergebnisse waren überwiegend zufrieden stellend mit Kappa-Koeffizienten im mittleren Bereich, Korrelationskoeffizienten für die Retest-Reliabilität im mittleren bis hohen Bereich und mittleren bis hohen Validitätskennwerten. In Studie 5 wurde mit Hilfe von Expertenurteilen die oben beschriebene Profillösung erstellt. Dabei wurden nochmals bedeutsame Veränderungen vor allem in Umfang und Formulierung der Items vorgenommen, was die positive Resonanz und eingeschätzte Nützlichkeit des DIPA mehr als verdoppeln konnte. In den abschließenden Studien 6 und 7 lagen die ermittelten Kappa-Koeffizienten für die Objektivität im mittleren Bereich mit Rohübereinstimmungen der Teilnehmer untereinander von jeweils über 70%. Die Koeffizienten für die Retest-Reliabilität lagen für alle Teile des DIPA bei über .50 (p<0.01). Die Validität, bestimmt über die prozentuale Übereinstimmung mit einer Musterlösung, lag bei zufrieden stellenden 58 bis 86 Prozent. Ökonomische und praktische Aspekte des DIPA wurden weitgehend positiv beurteilt. Der überwiegende Teil der Teilnehmer schätzte die Items als verständlich und praxisnah ein. Obwohl zwei Drittel der Praktiker und ein Drittel der Studierenden das DIPA als zu umfangreich einschätzen, gaben mindestens 60 Prozent der Praktiker und über 90 Prozent der Studierenden an, sie könnten sich den Einsatz des DIPA in ihrer beruflichen Praxis vorstellen und fänden ihn auch sinnvoll. Die Ergebnisse zu den psychometrischen Merkmalen des DIPA belegen, dass das Instrument weitgehend objektiv, zuverlässig und valide die Beurteilung der Interviewerkompetenz erlaubt. Es liegt ein Instrument vor, welches auf Grundlage seiner Güte und Aussagekraft wissenschaftlichen Kriterien genügt und eignungsdiagnostisch tätigen Praktikern einen effizienten und gewinnbringenden Einsatz in ihrem Arbeitsalltag ermöglicht

    Thinking in Action: Need for Cognition Predicts Self-Control Together with Action Orientation

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    Cognitive Engagement Mediates the Relationship between Positive Life Events and Positive Emotionality

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    Need for Cognition (NFC) is conceptualized as an individuals’ tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one’s cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE) and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE). Moreover, evidence suggests NFC to be related to an active, problem-focused coping style. We therefore hypothesized NFC to mediate between life events and individual differences in PE and NE. In a sample of N = 202 volunteers from the general population, we observed that the number of past positive and negative life events had direct effects on PE, and NE, respectively, and that for positive life events, a mediating effect on PE via NFC was observed, with a higher number of past positive life events being related to higher NFC that in turn was related to increased PE. Thus, the present results lend support to the notion of NFC as an important factor supporting personal well-being by way of its mediating role between the number of past positive life events and positive affect
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