42 research outputs found

    Regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR condensation and nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning

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    Auxin critically regulates plant growth and development. Auxin-driven transcriptional responses are mediated through the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) family of transcription factors. ARF protein condensation attenuates ARF activity, resulting in dramatic shifts in the auxin transcriptional landscape. Here, we perform a forward genetics screen for ARF hypercondensation, identifying an F-box protein, which we named AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR F-BOX1 (AFF1). Functional characterization of SC

    What is quantitative plant biology?

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    Quantitative plant biology is an interdisciplinary field that builds on a long history of biomathematics and biophysics. Today, thanks to high spatiotemporal resolution tools and computational modelling, it sets a new standard in plant science. Acquired data, whether molecular, geometric or mechanical, are quantified, statistically assessed and integrated at multiple scales and across fields. They feed testable predictions that, in turn, guide further experimental tests. Quantitative features such as variability, noise, robustness, delays or feedback loops are included to account for the inner dynamics of plants and their interactions with the environment. Here, we present the main features of this ongoing revolution, through new questions around signalling networks, tissue topology, shape plasticity, biomechanics, bioenergetics, ecology and engineering. In the end, quantitative plant biology allows us to question and better understand our interactions with plants. In turn, this field opens the door to transdisciplinary projects with the society, notably through citizen science.Peer reviewe

    The Formation and Evolution of Virgo Cluster Galaxies - II. Stellar Populations

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    We use a combination of deep optical and near-infrared light profiles for a morphologically diverse sample of Virgo cluster galaxies to study the radially-resolved stellar populations of cluster galaxies over a wide range of galaxy structure. We find that, in the median, the age gradients of Virgo galaxies are either flat (lenticulars and Sa-Sb spirals) or positive (ellipticals, Sbc+Sc spirals, gas-rich dwarfs, and irregulars), while all galaxy types have a negative median metallicity gradient. Comparison of the galaxy stellar population diagnostics (age, metallicity, and gradients thereof) against structural and environmental parameters also reveals that the ages of gas-rich systems depend mainly on their atomic gas deficiencies. Conversely, the metallicities of Virgo gas-poor galaxies depend on their concentrations, luminosities, and surface brightnesses. The stellar population gradients of all Virgo galaxies exhibit no dependence on either their structure or environment. We interpret these stellar population data for Virgo galaxies in the context of popular formation and evolution scenarios, and suggest that gas-poor giants grew hierarchically (through dissipative starbursts), gas-poor dwarfs have descended from at least two different production channels (e.g., environmental transformation and merging), while spirals formed inside-out, but with star formation in the outskirts of a significant fraction of the population having been quenched due to ram pressure stripping. (Abridged)Comment: 54 pages, 16 figures, 3 tables, re-submitted to MNRAS (edited to reflect the referee's suggestions

    The Arabidopsis PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8/ABCG36 ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Modulates Sensitivity to the Auxin Precursor Indole-3-Butyric Acid[C][W]

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    Plants have developed numerous mechanisms to store hormones in inactive but readily available states, enabling rapid responses to environmental changes. The phytohormone auxin has a number of storage precursors, including indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which is apparently shortened to active indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in peroxisomes by a process similar to fatty acid β-oxidation. Whereas metabolism of auxin precursors is beginning to be understood, the biological significance of the various precursors is virtually unknown. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that specifically restores IBA, but not IAA, responsiveness to auxin signaling mutants. This mutant is defective in PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8 (PDR8)/PENETRATION3/ABCG36, a plasma membrane–localized ATP binding cassette transporter that has established roles in pathogen responses and cadmium transport. We found that pdr8 mutants display defects in efflux of the auxin precursor IBA and developmental defects in root hair and cotyledon expansion that reveal previously unknown roles for IBA-derived IAA in plant growth and development. Our results are consistent with the possibility that limiting accumulation of the IAA precursor IBA via PDR8-promoted efflux contributes to auxin homeostasis

    Silver Ions Increase Auxin Efflux Independently of Effects on Ethylene Response

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    Silver nitrate and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) are often used to inhibit perception and biosynthesis, respectively, of the phytohormone ethylene. In the course of exploring the genetic basis of the extensive interactions between ethylene and auxin, we compared the effects of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and AVG on auxin responsiveness. We found that although AgNO3 dramatically decreased root indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) responsiveness in inhibition of root elongation, promotion of DR5-β-glucuronidase activity, and reduction of Aux/IAA protein levels, AVG had more mild effects. Moreover, we found that that silver ions, but not AVG, enhanced IAA efflux similarly in root tips of both the wild type and mutants with blocked ethylene responses, indicating that this enhancement was independent of ethylene signaling. Our results suggest that the promotion of IAA efflux by silver ions is independent of the effects of silver ions on ethylene perception. Although the molecular details of this enhancement remain unknown, our finding that silver ions can promote IAA efflux in addition to blocking ethylene signaling suggest that caution is warranted in interpreting studies using AgNO3 to block ethylene signaling in roots