29 research outputs found

    Responsible Conduct: The Ethics of It All in Life and Research

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    The teaching and learning of ethics as applied generally to the human condition as well as specifically to ethics in research are explored in this discourse. This first section focuses on individual moral dilemmas whereas the second depicts professional ethics in a more complicated tension between the personal moral self and the professional rules, regulations, and ethical expectations of a particular institution

    Moral reasoning in sport:validation of the Portuguese version of the RSBH value-judgement inventory in adolescents

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    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Portuguese version of the Rudd Stoll Beller Hahm Value-judgement Inventory (RSBHVI) in a sample of adolescents. The RSBHVI, which measures moral and social reasoning, was translated using a back translation method. A sample of 238 10th to 12th grade high school students (age mean value 16.93 years, s = 1.34) completed the Portuguese versions of RSBH, and the Task and Ego-orientation Questionnaire. Partial support for the original structure of the moral reasoning scale, but not the social reasoning scale, was found. Females, and non-athletes and individual sport athletes scored significantly higher than males and team sport athletes in moral reasoning, respectively. Moral reasoning was negatively correlated with ego-orientation (r = −30; p <. 001) and uncorrelated with task-orientation (r = .10, p > .05). Participants who were low-ego scored higher in moral reasoning than those who were high-ego. It is suggested that decreasing levels of ego-orientation may be necessary to improve athletes’ moral reasoning

    A Moral Reasoning Intervention Program for Student-Athletes

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    A study was conducted to assess the effects of an intense intervention program on the moral reasoning and development of intercollegiate student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an experimental applied normative ethics intervention program on the moral reasoning and moral development levels of Division I university age student-athletes. One hundred and sixty-nine subjects were pre-, post-, and postpost-evaluated with the Hahm-Beller Values Choice Inventory and the Defining Issues Test. The Hahm-Beller evaluates moral reasoning in the sport context, while the DIT assesses reasoning within the social construct. Both tests have a philosophical foundation, are objectively measured and scored, and have high validity and reliability indexes. Studies using both instruments have found that the Hahm-Beller and the DIT correlate at the .82 level (Hahm, 1989; Stoll & Beller, 1991). Furthermore, the theoretical foundation of both the Hahm-Beller and the DIT is deontic ethics. Thirty-seven student-athletes were randomly selected to enroll in the two-credit course, with 132 serving as controls. This study showed that an intense "Moral Reasoning in Sport" course appeared to increase cognitive moral reasoning and development in intercollegiate student-athletes. The course was offered in the 1989-1990 academic year and counted for two NCAA degree applicable credits

    Beauty and the Beast: Perception of Beauty for the Female Athlete

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    This chapter is a discussion and reflection of how beauty is perceived through the lens of four different athletes over four different decades. Two basketball players, a gymnast and a skater, reflect on the language of their sport and how beauty is perceived and manipulated through language and coaching techniques. The experiences affect athletes over a lifetime, both positively and negatively

    Leadership: The Act of Serving

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    This chapter is directed toward servant leadership as applied to the field of sport and athletic coaching. The purpose of the chapter is to give a brief definition of servant leadership and the application of such in coaching, and then to offer strategies for servant leadership as well as discuss several different research studies in athletic coaching. The conclusion simply states that though little research in coaching servant leadership exists, that which has been accomplished argues for implementation of coaching styles that are servant leadership focused

    HII Region Metallicity Constraints Near the Site of the Strongly Lensed Supernova "SN Refsdal" at Redshift 1.49

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    T. Yuan, C. Kobayashi, and L. J. Kewley, “HII Region Metallicity Constraints Near the Site of the Strongly Lensed Supernova "SN Refsdal" at Redshift 1.49”, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 804(1), April 2015. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society.We present the local HII region metallicity near the site of the recently discovered multiply lensed supernova (SN; "SN Refsdal") at redshift 1.49. "SN Refsdal" is located at the outer spiral arm (∌\sim7 kpc) of the lensed host galaxy, which we have previously reported to exhibit a steep negative galactocentric metallicity gradient. Based on our updated near-infrared integral field spectroscopic data, the gas-phase metallicity averaged in an intrinsic radius of ∌\sim 550 pc surrounding an HII region ∌\sim 200 pc away from the SN site is 12 + log(O/H)PP04N2_{\rm PP04N2} ≀\le 8.67. The metallicity averaged over nine HII regions at similar galactocentric distances (∌\sim5-7 kpc) as "SN Refsdal" is constrained to be 12 + log(O/H)PP04N2_{\rm PP04N2} ≀\le 8.11. Given the fortuitous discovery of "SN Refsdal" in an advantageously lensed face-on spiral, this is the first observational constraint on the local metallicity environment of an SN site at redshift z>1z>1.Peer reviewe

    Global maps of soil temperature

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    Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-kmÂČ resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e., offset) between in-situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-kmÂČ pixels (summarized from 8500 unique temperature sensors) across all the world’s major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in-situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications

    Global maps of soil temperature.

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    Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications
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