2,587 research outputs found

    The Karlsruhe optimized and precise radiative transfer algorithm

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    Cooperative Cognitive Automobiles

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    Safety requirements are among the most ambitious challenges for autonomous guidance and control of automobiles. A human-like understanding of the surrounding traffic scene is a key element to fulfill these requirements, but is a still missing capability of today's intelligent vehicles. Few recent proposals for driver assistance systems approach this issue with methods from the AI research to allow for a reasonable situation evaluation and behavior generation. While the methods proposed in this contribution are lend from cognition in order to mimic human capabilities, we argue that in the long term automated cooperation among traffic participants bears the potential to improve traffic efficiency and safety beyond the level attainable by human drivers. Both issues are major objectives of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 28 'cognitive automobiles,' TCRC28 that is outlined in the paper. Within this project the partners focus on systematic and interdisciplinary research on machine cognition of mobile systems as the basis for a scientific theory of automated machine behavior

    Identification of Mgenia fuscovaria (Stål)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of aster yellows disease on grapevines in South Africa, and differentiation from Mgenia angusta (Theron) by nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) gene

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    Aster yellows phytoplasma (AY), only recently reported in South Africa and still limited in its distribution in the country, causes a serious disease of grapevine. A leafhopper, Mgenia fuscovaria (Stål)(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), was shown to transmit AY to grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) locally. A second Mgenia species, identified as Mgenia angusta (Theron), has also been found in vineyards in South Africa but has not been shown to transmit AY. M. angusta is morphologically similar to M. fuscovaria, but does differ regarding the size of the male sex organ and in the number of teeth of the blades making up the ovipositor. In this study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (cox1),commonly used in insect bar-coding, of a number of specimens of males, females and nymphs of both M. fuscovaria and M. angusta. No differences were observed between the cox1 sequences of the male, female and nymph specimens putatively assigned to any specific species, but some nucleotide sequence differences were observed between specimens of M. fuscovaria and M. angusta. These differences, however, were insufficient to allow the development of PCR systems specific to each species

    Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 2: Data analysis

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    Assessing the performance of a MOD-OA horizontal axis wind turbine connected to an isolated diesel utility, a comprehensive data measurement program was conducted on the Block Island Power Company installation on Block Island, Rhode Island. The detailed results of that program focusing on three principal areas of (1) fuel displacement (savings), (2) dynamic interaction between the diesel utility and the wind turbine, (3) effects of three models of wind turbine reactive power control are presented. The approximate two month duration of the data acquisition program conducted in the winter months (February into April 1982) revealed performance during periods of highest wind energy penetration and hence severity of operation. Even under such conditions fuel savings were significant resulting in a fuel reduction of 6.7% while the MOD-OA was generating 10.7% of the total electrical energy. Also, electrical disturbance and interactive effects were of an acceptable level

    Another Drop in Water Vapor

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    In 2000 a sudden severe drop in stratospheric water vapor levels interrupted the supposed long-term increase of this greenhouse gas, an important contributor to global warming and climate variability. Satellite sensors observed a recovery in the following years, hidden behind a large variability. More recently, during 2011 and 2012, measurements revealed another severe drop in stratospheric water vapor concentrations

    Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 1: Executive summary

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    Primary results are summarized for a three-part study involving the effects of connecting a MOD-OA wind turbine generator to an isolated diesel power system. The MOD-OA installation considered was the third of four experimental nominal 200 kW wind turbines connected to various utilities under the Federal Wind Energy Program and was characterized by the highest wind energy penetration levels of four sites. The study analyses address: fuel displacement, dynamic interaction, and three modes of reactive power control. These analyses all have as their basis the results of the data acquisition program conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island
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