79 research outputs found

    The"Glass of Milk"subsidy program and malnutrition in Peru

    Get PDF
    The authors evaluate the Vaso de Leche (VL) feeding program in Peru. They pose the question that if a community-based multistage targeting scheme such as that of the VL program is progressive, is it possible that the program can achieve its nutritional objectives? The authors address this by linking VL public expenditure data with household survey data to assess the targeting, and then to model the determinants of nutritional outcomes of children to see if VL program interventions have an impact on nutrition. They confirm that the VL program is well targeted to poor households and to those with low nutritional status. While the bulk of the coverage of the poor is attributed to targeting of poor districts, the fact that the poor receive larger in-kind transfers is attributed to intradistrict targeting. But the impactof these food subsidies beyond their value as income transfers is limited by the degree to which the commodity transfers are inframarginal. The authors find that transfers of milk and milk substitutes from the VL program are inframarginal for approximately half of the households that receive them. So, it is not entirely surprising that they fail to find econometric evidence of the nutritional objectives of the VL program being achieved. In models of child standardized heights, the authors find no impact of the VL program expenditures on the nutritional outcomes of young children-the group to whom the program is targeted.Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Services&Transfers to Poor,Public Health Promotion,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Housing&Human Habitats,Services&Transfers to Poor,Rural Poverty Reduction,Safety Nets and Transfers,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Poverty Impact Evaluation

    Urban-Rural Inequality in Living Standards in Africa

    Get PDF
    welfare, poverty, growth, income distribution

    Taboos, Agriculture and Poverty.

    Get PDF
    We study the impact of work taboos (fady days) on agriculture and poverty. Using cross-sectional data from a national household survey for Madagascar, we find that 18 per cent of agricultural households have two or more fady days per week and that an extra fady day is associated with 6 per cent lower per capita consumption and 5 per cent lower rice productivity. To address the possible endogeneity of fady days, we present instrumental variable estimates and heterogeneous effect regressions using village fixed effects. We find that smaller households and those with less education employ less labour in villages with more fady days.

    Taboos, agriculture and poverty

    Get PDF
    Although cultural practices often have important consequences for household consumption and economic performance, they are seldom studied by economists. To fill this gap we study the impact of taboos on agriculture and poverty. Madagascar is a good case study for this purpose given the prevalence of taboos in everyday life and the variation in cultural practices across the country. We examine the relationship between observance of work taboos (fady days) and agriculture and consumption. Using cross-sectional data from a national household survey, we find that 18% of agricultural households have two or more fady days per week and that an extra fady day is associated with 6 percent lower per capita consumption level and 5 percent lower rice productivity - controlling for human, ethnic and physical characteristics. To deal with the possible endogeneity of fady days, we present instrumental variable estimates as well as heterogeneous effect regressions using village fixed effects. We find that smaller households and those with less education employ less labor in villages with more fady days.

    Transaction costs and agricultural productivity

    Get PDF
    This paper examines the mechanisms that transmit isolation into poverty in Madagascar using household survey data combined with a census of administrative communes. Given the importance of agriculture to the rural poor, where nine out of ten poor persons is engaged in farming, we concentrate on isolation manifesting itself in the form of high transaction costs such as the cost of transporting agricultural commodities to major market centers. We find that (a) the incidence of poverty in rural Madagascar increases with remoteness; (b) yields of major staple crops fall considerably as one gets farther away from major markets; (c) and the use of agricultural inputs declines with isolation. Simulation results using output from rice production function estimates suggest that halving travel time per kilometer on major highways (feeder roads) will increase primary season rice production by 1.3 (1.0) percent.Rural poor ,rural areas ,Rice production ,Poverty ,Household surveys Madagascar ,

    Assets as a Measure of Household Welfare in Developing Countries

    Get PDF
    This paper was commissioned for Inclusion in Asset Building: Research and Policy Symposium, an event hosted in September 2000 by the Center for Social Development at Washington University in St. Louis. The paper identifies and explores the use of an asset-based metric of welfare. The metric relies on assets data that are easy to collect and analyze. The authors demonstrate that the asset index functions well in identifying and profiling the poor, in targeting transfers, and even in estimating demand or production functions for outcomes that are useful for designing programs and policy

    The rural non-farm economy, livelihood strategies and household welfare

    No full text
    This paper examines the relationship between rural non-farm employment and household welfare using nationally representative data from Madagascar. It focuses on labor outcomes in the context of household livelihood strategies that include farm and non-farm income earning opportunities. It identifies distinct household livelihood strategies that can be ordered in welfare terms, and estimates multinomial logit models to assess the extent of the barriers to choosing dominant strategies. It finds that high-return non-farm activities provide an important pathway out of poverty, but that barriers such as lack of (a) education, (b) formal credit and (c) access to telecommunications restrict participation in such activities. Individual employment choice models and estimates of earnings functions provide supporting evidence of these barriers. Although the poverty reduction effects may be limited, low-return non-farm activities also play an important role as safety nets by providing opportunities for ex ante risk reduction and ex post coping with shocks

    Food security

    No full text
    Chapter 10, “Food Security,” describes the evolution of poverty and food security between 2010/2011 and 2015/2016 and examines the seasonality of food insecurity. Household survey data from 2016 show that Ethiopia continues to face high levels of food insecurity: daily energy consumption is low (3,055 kilocalories per adult on average), and diet quality is poor (starchy staples account for 71.6 percent of calories). There has been relatively little change in the composition of diets between 2011 and 2016, although the diets of the poorest half of the population (especially in rural areas) improved slightly with less reliance on starchy staples and greater dietary diversity. The authors find substantial seasonal patterns, however, with marked variations in energy (calorie) consumption, which is highest in postharvest periods. Regression analysis using the 2015/2016 data reveals that that average energy intake is positively associated with total household expenditure and productive farmPRIFPRI4; CRP2; ESSPDSGD; PIMCGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM
    corecore